24.07.2020 | Hot Topics | Ausgabe 6/2020
Current Applications of Growth Factors for Knee Cartilage Repair and Osteoarthritis Treatment
Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
- Sarav S. Shah, Kai Mithoefer
Purpose of Review
The decreased contact area, edge loading, and increased stress in the adjacent area cartilage resulting from chondral defects are believed to predispose this tissue to degenerative changes that have significant economic implications, especially when considering its progression to osteoarthritis of the knee. Growth factors are considered therapeutic possibilities to enhance healing of chondral injuries and modify the progression to degenerative arthritis. Thus, the purposes of this review are to first to summarize important points for defect preparation and recent advances in techniques for marrow stimulation and second, and to identify specific growth factors and cytokines that have the capacity to advance cartilage regeneration and the treatment of osteoarthritis in light of recent laboratory and clinical studies.
TGF-β, BMP-2, BMP-7, IGF-1, as IL-1 receptor antagonist, and recombinant human FGF-18 are some of the promising growth factor/cytokine treatments with pioneering and evolving clinical developments. The bulk of the review describes and discusses these developments in light of fundamental basic science. It is crucial to also understand the other underlying advances made in the surgical management of cartilage defects prior to onset of OA. These advances are in techniques for defect preparation and marrow stimulation, a common cartilage repair procedure used in combination with growth factor/cytokine augmentation.
Multiple growth factor/cytokine modulation therapies are currently undergoing clinical trial investigation including Invossa (currently in phase III study), Kineret (currently in phase I study), and Sprifermin (currently in phase II study) for the treatment of symptomatic osteoarthritis.