This article is part of the Topical Collection on Epidemiology
The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the recent findings on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in periodontal disease, including disease susceptibility, progression, and as potential treatment options.
The findings on the influence of oral pathogens on epigenetic regulation of pathogen recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines suggest an important role for epigenetics in the regulation of the host immune response. Recent studies also show that the epigenetic pattern in periodontitis lesions differ from that of healthy and gingivitis tissue. In addition, these patterns differ between tissues in the same individual. Research is also indicating a role for both DNA methylation and histone acetylation on cells osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration.
Knowledge of epigenetic pattern in periodontal diseases may add not only to the knowledge of susceptibility of the disease but may also be a diagnostic tool to identify patients at risk to develop the severe form of periodontitis. In addition, recent research within gene therapy and tissue engineering indicate a role for epigenetics also to improve regeneration of periodontal tissues.
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- Current Concepts of Epigenetics and Its Role in Periodontitis
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