The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10151-019-01973-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
M. D. Slooter and A. Janssen share first authorship.
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Iatrogenic ureteral injury (IUI) following abdominal surgery has a relatively low incidence, but is associated with high risks of morbidity and mortality. Conventional assessment of IUI includes visual inspection and palpation. This is especially challenging during laparoscopic procedures and has translated into an increased risk of IUI. The use of near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging is currently being considered as a novel method to identify the ureters intraoperatively. The aim of this review is to describe the currently available and experimental dyes for ureter visualization and to evaluate their feasibility of using them and their effectiveness.
This article adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standard for systematic reviews. A systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed database. All included articles were screened for eligibility by two authors. Three clinical trial databases were consulted to identify ongoing or completed unpublished trials. Risk of bias was assessed for all articles.
The search yielded 20 articles on ureter visualization. Two clinically available dyes, indocyanine green (ICG) and methylene blue (MB), and eight experimental dyes were described and assessed for their feasibility to identify the ureter. Two ongoing clinical trials on CW800-BK and one trial on ZW800-1 for ureter visualization were identified.
Currently available dyes, ICG and MB, are safe, but suboptimal for ureter visualization based on the route of administration and optical properties, respectively. Currently, MB has potential to be routinely used for ureter visualization in most patients, but (cRGD-)ZW800-1 holds potential for this role in the future, owing to its exclusive renal clearance and the near absence of background. To assess the benefit of NIRF imaging for reducing the incidence of IUI, larger patient cohorts need to be examined.
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 47 kb)10151_2019_1973_MOESM1_ESM.docx
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- Currently available and experimental dyes for intraoperative near-infrared fluorescence imaging of the ureters: a systematic review
M. D. Slooter
W. A. Bemelman
P. J. Tanis
- Springer International Publishing
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