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Erschienen in: Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde 8/2022

01.07.2022 | Leitthema

Biomarker und Neuromonitoring zur Entwicklungsprognose nach perinataler Hirnschädigung

verfasst von: Prof. Dr. Ursula Felderhoff-Müser, Britta Hüning

Erschienen in: Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde | Ausgabe 8/2022

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Zusammenfassung

Das sich entwickelnde Gehirn ist in der Perinatalperiode besonders empfindlich für eine Vielzahl von Insulten, wie z. B. Extremfrühgeburtlichkeit und perinatale Asphyxie. Ihre Komplikationen können zu lebenslangen neurokognitiven, sensorischen und psychosozialen Einschränkungen führen; deren Vorhersage bleibt eine Herausforderung. Eine Schlüsselfunktion kommt der möglichst exakten Identifikation von Hirnläsionen und funktionellen Störungen zu. Die Prädiktion stützt sich auf frühe diagnostische Verfahren und die klinische Erfassung der Meilensteine der Entwicklung. Zur klinischen Diagnostik und zum Neuromonitoring in der Neonatal- und frühen Säuglingsperiode stehen bildgebende Verfahren zur Verfügung. Hierzu zählen zerebrale Sonographie, MRT am errechneten Termin, amplitudenintegriertes (a)EEG und/oder klassisches EEG, Nah-Infrarot-Spektroskopie, General Movements Assessment und die frühe klinische Nachuntersuchung z. B. mithilfe der Hammersmith Neonatal/Infant Neurological Examination. Innovative Biomarker und -muster (Omics) sowie (epi)genetische Prädispositionen sind Gegenstand wissenschaftlicher Untersuchungen. Neben der Erfassung klinischer Risiken kommt psychosozialen Faktoren im Umfeld des Kindes eine entscheidende Rolle zu. Eine möglichst akkurate Prognose ist mit hohem Aufwand verbunden, jedoch zur gezielten Beratung der Familien und der Einleitung von frühen Interventionen, insbesondere vor dem Hintergrund der hohen Plastizität des sich entwickelnden Gehirns, von großer Bedeutung. Diese Übersichtsarbeit fokussiert die Charakterisierung der oben genannten Verfahren und ihrer Kombinationsmöglichkeiten. Zudem wird ein Ausblick gegeben, wie innovative Techniken in Zukunft die Prädiktion der Entwicklung und Nachsorge dieser Kinder vereinfachen können.
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Metadaten
Titel
Biomarker und Neuromonitoring zur Entwicklungsprognose nach perinataler Hirnschädigung
verfasst von
Prof. Dr. Ursula Felderhoff-Müser
Britta Hüning
Publikationsdatum
01.07.2022
Verlag
Springer Medizin
Erschienen in
Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde / Ausgabe 8/2022
Print ISSN: 0026-9298
Elektronische ISSN: 1433-0474
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00112-022-01542-4

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