01.05.2023 | Original Article
Efficacy of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) in management of temporomandibular disorder (TMD)
Lasers in Dental Science
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) in management of temporomandibular disorder (TMD).
A single group of 50 patients were selected for this study (11 males and 39 females) aged between 21 and 45 years old. Patients with joint pain, muscle pain, and tenderness with or without limitation of mouth opening were included in the study; other cases were excluded (degenerative diseases, disk displacement, patient with occlusal abnormalities, recent trauma, abnormal mandibular growth, and recent TMJ treatment before 6 months). All patients were treated using Epic X 940-nm diode laser. The power settings include power 4 W in a continuous (CW) mode of operation, a spot size of 3 cm (defocused mod), and a power density of 0.5 W/cm2 with a time of exposure of 30 s for each trigger point (TMJ area and mastication muscles). The number of treatment sessions was 3 sessions per week, and the total number of sessions was 10 sessions for each patient.
The results show a statistically significant reduction of pain intensity and tender points after 10 sessions, followed by a follow-up period of 3–6 months. For subjects with a limitation in mouth opening, a significant improvement in mouth opening was observed after 10 sessions followed by a 3–6-month follow-up period.
According to the result obtained from the study, photobiomodulation therapy is considered an effective method in management of TMD. Pain reduction was increased and improvement of mouth opening also increased at the end of treatment. Tenderness was significantly decreased on palpation. In order to achieve the maximum result, correct diagnosis and proper knowledge of laser tissue interaction are needed.