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01.08.2009 | Übersichten

Ist psychischer Stress ein Risikofaktor bei der Entstehung und Entwicklung von Tumoren?

verfasst von: Prof. Dr. L. Rensing, V. Rippe

Erschienen in: Die Onkologie | Ausgabe 8/2009

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Zusammenfassung

Epidemiologische Studien über den Zusammenhang zwischen psychosozialem Stress (am Arbeitsplatz oder durch tiefe Lebenseinschnitte) und Tumorentstehung und -entwicklung sind in den Ergebnissen noch immer widersprüchlich und mit einer hohen Varianz behaftet. In einer Mehrzahl von Studien erhöht psychosozialer Stress allerdings das Risiko, an bestimmten Tumorarten zu erkranken, beispielweise an dem am häufigsten untersuchten Brustkrebs. Teilschritte auf dem Weg von Stress zu erhöhtem Krebsrisiko bestehen einerseits aus stressinduzierten Suchtverhaltensweisen (Rauchen, Alkoholkonsum, Essstörungen), andererseits aus den Wirkungen von Stresshormonen und deren Einfluss auf das Immunsystem. Suchtverhalten beinhaltet eine Anzahl von Krebsrisiken, z. B. durch erhöhte Mengen von reaktiven Sauerstoffspezies (ROS) bei Rauchen und Alkoholismus, die mutagen und cancerogen wirken, oder erhöhte Produktion von Adipokinen in den Fettzellen, wodurch die Proliferationsrate auch von Krebszellen stimuliert werden kann. Stresshormone und Zytokine erhöhen bei starkem Stress das Risiko von chronischen Entzündungen, die ihrerseits über eine Anzahl von Faktoren kanzerogen wirken können. Auch die Bekämpfung von Krebszellen durch das Immunsystem (Immunosurveillance) wird durch Stress gehemmt. Schließlich verstärkt Stress Alterungsprozesse wie die Verkürzung von Telomeren, was sich ebenfalls als Krebsrisiko erwiesen hat. Die Beeinflussung von Krebs durch psychosozialen Stress sollte daher bei Präventivmaßnahmen, aber auch bei der Therapie berücksichtigt werden.
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Metadaten
Titel
Ist psychischer Stress ein Risikofaktor bei der Entstehung und Entwicklung von Tumoren?
verfasst von
Prof. Dr. L. Rensing
V. Rippe
Publikationsdatum
01.08.2009
Verlag
Springer-Verlag
Erschienen in
Die Onkologie / Ausgabe 8/2009
Print ISSN: 2731-7226
Elektronische ISSN: 2731-7234
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00761-009-1654-8

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