26.05.2023 | Research
Loss of Caveolin-1 Expression in Tumor Cells is Associated with Increased Aggressiveness and Cell Invasion in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Head and Neck Pathology
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Changes in Caveolin-1 (CAV-1) expression are related to tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of CAV-1 in tumor progression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissue samples and the effect of CAV-1 silencing on two oral tongue SCC (OTSCC) cell lines (SCC-25, from a primary tumor, and HSC-3 from lymph node metastases).
Mycroarray hybridization, mRNA expression, and immunohistochemistry were performed on OSCC tissue samples and corresponding non-tumoral margin tissues. The effects of CAV-1 silencing (siCAV-1) on cell viability, membrane fluidity, on the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and on cell migration and invasion capacity of OTSCC cell lines were evaluated.
Microarray showed a greater CAV-1 expression (1.77-fold) in OSCC tumors than in non-tumoral tissues and 2.0-fold more in less aggressive OSCCs. However, significant differences in CAV-1 gene expression were not seen between tumors and non-tumoral margins nor CAV-1 with any clinicopathological parameters. CAV-1 protein was localized both in carcinoma and in spindle cells of the tumor microenvironment (TME), and CAV-1 positive TME cells were associated with smaller/more aggressive tumors, independent of the carcinoma cells’ expression. Silencing of CAV-1 increased cell viability only in SCC-25 cells. It also stimulated the invasion of HSC-3 cells and increased ECAD and BCAT mRNA in these cells; however, the protein levels of the EMT markers were not affected.
Decreased expression of CAV-1 by tumor cells in OSCC and an increase in the TME were associated with increased cell invasiveness and tumor aggressiveness.