Skip to main content
main-content
Erschienen in: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 11/2022

Open Access 10.09.2022 | Asthma (V Ortega, Section Editor)

Narrative Review of the Role of Patient-Reported Outcomes and Inhaler Handling Errors in the Control of Asthma and COPD

verfasst von: Raúl De Simón Gutiérrez, Raúl Piedra Castro

Erschienen in: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports | Ausgabe 11/2022

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic respiratory diseases that remain uncontrolled in many patients, despite the wide range of therapeutic options available. This review analyzes the available clinical evidence on 3 budesonide/formoterol DPI devices, Spiromax®, Turbuhaler®, and Easyhaler®, in terms of patient-reported outcomes (PROs), inhaler errors, and asthma and COPD control.

Recent Findings

The effectiveness of dry powder inhalers (DPI) depends largely on the device and the patient’s inhaler technique. Equally important are the patient’s perception of the inhaler and adherence. Given the high burden of these diseases, it is important that efforts be made to select the best DPI for each patient and to analyze the impact of these variables to help improve the health and quality of life of our patients.

Summary

This review provides a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge about PROs, inhaler handling errors, and asthma and COPD control achieved by Spiromax®, Turbuhaler®, and Easyhaler®.
Hinweise
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Asthma

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Introduction

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide [1]. Both diseases confer a significant burden on patients and their families and on healthcare systems [2, 3].
Treatment is based on the delivery of drugs via an inhaler, with the aim of controlling symptoms, reducing exacerbations, improving exercise tolerance and health status, and reducing mortality [4]. The therapeutic options recommended in clinical practice guidelines for patients with asthma and COPD include various fixed-dose combinations of an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long-acting beta-adrenergic agonist (LABA). One commonly used ICS/LABA combination is budesonide and formoterol (BF). BF is delivered via Spiromax®, Turbuhaler®, and Easyhaler® dry powder inhalers (DPIs) in the management of asthma and COPD.
Although many pharmacological treatments are recommended in clinical practice guidelines, both diseases remain uncontrolled in a considerable number of patients [5, 6]. This is because the effectiveness of the drugs administered via DPIs depends on the patient’s inhaler technique [7], and this effectiveness is significantly diminished when patients fail to manage their inhaler correctly [2, 3, 8, 9]. Similarly, the patient’s perception of their inhaler and their therapeutic adherence, which are of particular importance in the setting of a chronic disease, can greatly influence the clinical success of the treatment [7, 1013]. Healthcare professionals can teach, review, and correct inhaler techniques and thus improve adherence by providing support and educating their patients. However, in recent years, numerous inhalers have appeared on the market, complicating the clinician’s tasks when selecting the best inhaler for each patient [7].
The analysis of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is being used increasingly in clinical research. The parameters consist of a patient’s evaluation of a drug based on their own perception of their disease and treatment(s). Since the device itself and its suitability for the patient are important elements to consider [14], strategies are needed to improve public health issues and outcomes in individuals with asthma and/or COPD [15]. There is currently little evidence to determine how handling errors and PROs for DPIs influence the effectiveness of these therapies. The aim of this review was to analyze the impact of PROs and handling errors in the use of Spiromax®, Turbuhaler®, and Easyhaler® on asthma and COPD control, in order to guide the selection of the best DPI for each patient.

DPIs: Spiromax®, Turbuhaler®, and Easyhaler®, Inhalation Features and Techniques

The dose delivered by an DPI and the particle size distribution are determined by the formulation, the inhaler, and the patient’s inhaler technique [16]. This technique depends on a wide variety of factors, such as acceleration at the beginning of inhalation (ACC), peak inspiratory flow (PIF), and total inhaled volume (IV), which are all different for each DPI [17, 18]. A growing body of evidence suggests that a correct inhaler technique is essential if treatment is to be effective. Moreover, device type and mastery of the technique play an important role in improving adherence, clinical outcomes, quality of life, and the use of health resources [13].
The ICS/LABA fixed-dose combination for the BF formulation has now been approved in Europe for 3 different DPIs: Spiromax®, Turbuhaler®, and Easyhaler®. A review by Haidl et al. [19] comparing inhaler techniques among the different DPIs found that Spiromax®, Turbuhaler®, and Easyhaler® required a minimum inspiratory flow rate of 30 L/min for an acceptable inhalation. Flow resistance is medium-to-high for Spiromax® and Turbuhaler® and high for Easyhaler®. For all 3 devices, dose delivery is flow-dependent and guidelines recommend exhalation into the room (not into the device) and forced inhalation through the mouth from the very beginning of the maneuver [19]. In an in vitro study, Spiromax® was more consistent than Turbuhaler® in a range of inspiratory flow profiles, and the delivery of fine-particle doses in weak inhalation profiles tended to be higher [16].

Inadequate Disease Control: Errors in Inhaler Technique, Lack of Adherence, and other Limitations in the Use of DPIs

Although DPIs are appropriate for the management of asthma and COPD [7], patients often present persistent symptoms, a loss of disease control, and a diminished quality of life [20]. The design of the inhaler itself can contribute to patient errors in the maneuver [2123]. Published data also suggest that a large proportion of individuals using DPIs develop a suboptimal inhaler technique [2426].
Evidence gathered from several studies in routine clinical practice in patients with asthma and COPD has shown that incorrect inhaler use is associated with poor symptom control and worse outcomes [8, 24, 27]. An inadequate inhaler technique in asthmatic patients, in particular, results in poor disease control [8, 13, 24], and these patients often use their DPI incorrectly [2729]. The risk of death due to asthma or COPD increases significantly when treatment is not maintained over time [30].
Lack of therapeutic adherence ranges between 40 and 78% in asthma and 40% and 60% in COPD [31, 32]. This variability depends, to a large extent, on our definition of adherence and how it is measured. Frequency, complexity, and duration of treatment are some of the factors that can affect adherence [33]. Other factors that can limit the effectiveness of inhaled therapy include less time dedicated to training, and patient characteristics such as level of training, age, and level of education [34].

PROs in Inhaled Therapy for Chronic Respiratory Diseases

PROs provide unique information from the patient’s perspective on how a treatment influences their attitude to their disease [35]. Furthermore, there are certain data that only PROs can provide [36]. These outcomes are becoming increasingly important in clinical research [36] to the extent that nowadays many studies include validated PRO questionnaires among their study variables [35]. In particular, current recommendations on asthma and COPD management encourage active patient participation in the selection of an inhaler device [7, 15].

Clinical Development with Spiromax®, Turbuhaler®, and Easyhaler®

Although the clinical importance of the BF combination in inhaled treatment of asthma and COPD is well established, its effectiveness depends on patients using their inhaler properly and in a sustained manner over time. However, limited information is available on the differences between existing inhalers in terms of ease of use, intuitive use, and the steps required to master the technique (absence of inhaler errors) and patients’ preference for the type of inhaler prescribed to them. Studies that identify the advantages and disadvantages of each DPI in terms of inhaler technique or handling errors, patient adherence, and preferences, are therefore of the utmost importance in implementing appropriate strategies and improving inhaled therapy in patients with asthma and COPD.

Clinical Trials with Spiromax®, Turbuhaler®, and Easyhaler®

A single-site, single-visit, randomized, crossover trial of 120 healthy volunteers conducted in Finland (the FINHALER study [37]) assessed device mastery, handling errors, and preferences among Spiromax®, Turbuhaler®, and Easyhaler® devices. Each device was tested in 3 steps, as follows: step 1 – intuitive use; step 2 – after reading the patient information leaflet; and step 3 – after receiving instructions from their healthcare provider. Spiromax® was used correctly by 37.5% and 93.3% participants in steps 1 and 2, respectively, compared with 0% and 58.3% for Easyhaler®, and 9.2% and 76.7% for Turbuhaler®. All 3 devices showed high mastery (> 95%) in step 3. The most common errors reported with Spiromax® were orientation of the device, not shaking the device in the case of Easyhaler®, and not priming the device in the case of Turbuhaler®. Spiromax®, Easyhaler®, and Turbuhaler® were rated as the “easiest device to use” by 73.1%, 12.6%, and 14.3% of individuals, respectively. The use of all devices improved after patients received instructions from the healthcare provider. The authors concluded that mastery of Spiromax®, including ease of use and intuitive use, was superior to that demonstrated for its comparators in healthy volunteers [37].
Another single-site, single-visit, randomized, crossover trial conducted in Sweden in 117 healthy adult volunteers evaluated the appropriate use of and preferences for Spiromax®, Turbuhaler®, and Easyhaler®. More participants mastered device handling with Spiromax® than with Turbuhaler® or Easyhaler®, both intuitively (44%, 0%, and 10%, respectively) and after reading the instructions (99%, 56%, and 81%, respectively). Fewer participants had ≥ 1 handling error with Spiromax® than with the other DPIs. The percentage of volunteers still making inhaler errors after reading the instructions was 21% for Spiromax® and 40% for Easyhaler®. Mastery of handling and inhaler techniques was lower among participants older than 60 years of age across all devices. Most individuals preferred Spiromax® over Turbuhaler® or Easyhaler® for device handling (59%) and intuitiveness/ease of use (61%). These results highlight important differences among DPIs, which could have implications for disease control when selecting a device for a patient [38].
The ELIOT study was a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, open-label, crossover trial in 2 parallel groups conducted in the UK. The objective was to determine mastery of the inhaler technique with BF Spiromax® versus BF Turbuhaler® and its maintenance over time in adults with moderate–severe asthma. A total of 493 patients participated in the crossover phase (switching phase where each study group changed to the other inhaler after the initial phase), and 395 patients participated in the longitudinal phase. In the crossover phase, more patients achieved device mastery after 3 training steps with BF Spiromax® (94%) versus BF Turbuhaler® (87%) (odds ratio [OR] 3.77 [95% CI 2.05–6.95]; p < 0.001). Asthma control improved in both groups according to the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) (OR 0.11 [95% CI − 0.09 to 0.30]), but differences were not significant. An exploratory analysis by independent experts indicated that the probability of maintaining device mastery after 12 weeks was significantly higher for BF Spiromax® versus BF Turbuhaler® (OR 2.11 [95% CI 1.25–3.54]). Median Patient Satisfaction and Preference Questionnaire (PSAPQ) scores were higher for BF Spiromax® versus BF Turbuhaler® (89.8 vs. 85.7; p < 0.001). According to the ACQ, disease control improved with both DPIs, although changes were non-significant (OR 0.11 [95% CI − 0.09 to 0.30]) [39].
In another phase 3b, 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy trial, the efficacy and safety of BF Spiromax® versus BF Turbuhaler® was assessed in 574 patients older than 12 years of age with persistent asthma. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF), patient satisfaction, and preference were analyzed using validated questionnaires, along with other variables, including safety. Based on PEF figures, the non-inferiority of BF Spiromax® versus BF Turbuhaler® was demonstrated in asthmatic patients over 12 years of age. More individuals preferred BF Spiromax® over BF Turbuhaler® for its performance, and were willing to continue with BF Spiromax® beyond the study period [40].
Finally, an open-label, cross-sectional trial in 61 patients with asthma and 44 with COPD conducted in Germany evaluated 10 different types of placebo inhalers. These included Spiromax®, Turbuhaler®, and Nexthaler®, which were used randomly. Spiromax® required fewer attempts to ensure correct use compared with the average observed for all 10 devices (1.22). The device with the lowest mean number of attempts to error-free use was the Turbuhaler® (1.02), followed by the Nexthaler® (1.04), Diskus® (1.07), and the Spiromax® (1.10). Overall, 41% of subjects chose one of the devices they already used as their preferred inhaler. In total, 20% opted for the Spiromax®, 15% for the Nexthaler®, and 14% for the Turbuhaler® or a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI). Patients stated that the most important feature of an inhaler is easy handling, followed by a short inhalation time and low inhalation resistance. The authors concluded that patient preferences may vary among inhalers. The lowest number of attempts to achieve error-free use was reported for the Turbuhaler® and Nexthaler® devices. Overall, Spiromax® and Nexthaler® achieved the best overall ratings and where the devices most preferred by patients [41], 1.02 should be replaced by 1.10. Table 1 lists clinical trials conducted with the Spiromax®, Turbuhaler®, and Easyhaler® devices.
Table 1
Clinical trials reporting PROs, handling errors, and disease control with Spiromax®
Study
Design
Population
Duration
Objective
No. patients
Main findings
Sandler et al. [37]
Single-center, crossover
Healthy volunteers
Single visit
To assess mastery, handling errors and preferences among Spiromax®, Turbuhaler® and Easyhaler®
N = 120 (20 in each of the 6 groups)
Spiromax® was the easiest DPI to use (73.1%), followed by Turbuhaler® (12.6%) and Easyhaler® (14.3%).
Rönmark et al. [38]
Single-center, randomized, crossover
Healthy volunteers
Single visit
To assess proper use and preferences of Spiromax®, Turbuhaler® and Easyhaler®
N = 117
Spiromax® was preferred over Turbuhaler® and Easyhaler® by most patients in terms of device handling (59%) and intuitive use/ease of use (61%).
Price et al. [39]
Multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, crossover
Adults with moderate-to-severe asthma
12 weeks
To determine inhaler technique and achievement and maintenance of mastery BF Spiromax® and BF Turbuhaler®
Crossover
N = 493
Longitudinal N = 395
BF Spiromax® showed higher levels of DPI mastery than BF Turbuhaler® (OR 2.11 [95% CI 1.25–3.54], p = 0.005).
BF Spiromax® was preferred over BF Turbuhaler® according to PASAPQ.
Asthma control improved with both groups according to the ACQ, (OR 0.11 [95% CI − 0.09 to 0.30], p = 0.278).
Virchow et al. [40]
Multicenter, phase 3b, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy
Patients ≥ 12 years with persistent asthma
12 weeks
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of BF Spiromax® vs. BF Turbuhaler®
N = 574
BF Spiromax® demonstrated non-inferiority vs. BF Turbuhaler® according to PEF.
BF Spiromax® was preferred by a greater number of patients.
More patients wanted to continue with BF Spiromax® after the study.
Schreiber et al. [41]
Single-center, open-label, cross-sectional
Adults with asthma or COPD
Single visit
To evaluate the correct use and preference of 10 inhalers
Asthma N = 61
COPD N = 44
Spiromax® was preferred by 20% of patients, followed by Nexthaler® (15%) and Turbuhaler® (14%) or a pMDI, according to PASAPQ and FSI-10.
DPI dry powder inhaler, BF budesonide and formoterol, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, PASAPQ patient satisfaction and preference questionnaire, ACQ asthma control questionnaire, PEF peak expiratory flow, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pMDI pressurized metered dose inhaler, FSI-10 Feeling of Satisfaction with inhaler questionnaire

Real-Life Experience: Observational Studies with Spiromax®, Turbuhaler®, and Easyhaler®

In addition to the findings of clinical trials, the outcomes of therapies in routine clinical practice need to be analyzed and understood, as these parameters contribute to clinical decision-making.
Thus, in a prospective, observational, multicenter study conducted in Spain and Portugal as part of an international program, handling and inhaler errors with BF Spiromax® and BF Turbuhaler® were evaluated in 175 patients with asthma and COPD. The authors concluded that the total number of errors (1.4 vs. 1.9; p < 0.001) and handling errors (0.5 vs. 0.8; p < 0.001) per patient was significantly lower with BF Spiromax® than with BF Turbuhaler®. BF Spiromax® was easier to learn to use (p < 0.001), easier to prepare (p < 0.001), and more comfortable in terms of weight and size (p < 0.001). Furthermore, patients who used BF Spiromax® felt that they were using the inhaler correctly (p < 0.001). In addition, 79.5% of the subjects preferred BF Spiromax® over BF Turbuhaler® [15].
The SPRINT study is a phase 4, multinational, prospective, observational study conducted in 10 European countries that evaluated the effect of a fixed-dose combination of ICS/LABA in patients with asthma and COPD. As part of the secondary objectives, an exploratory analysis was designed to assess the adherence, satisfaction, and ease of use of BF Spiromax® in routine clinical practice during a visit in a cross-sectional study. Of the 1101 patients included, 342 were receiving treatment with BF Spiromax®. Of these, 235 had asthma and 107 had COPD. Overall, 72.5% of BF Spiromax® users showed medium-to-high adherence on the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8 score > 6). The mean satisfaction score for BF Spiromax® on a scale of 1 to 10 was 8.9 (standard deviation [SD] 1.6). Nearly all (98.8%) of the BF Spiromax® users were at least satisfied with their inhaler, while 85.4% were very satisfied. Mean ease-of-use score for BF Spiromax® was 9.1 (SD 1.3). In conclusion, asthma and COPD patients using BF Spiromax® showed moderate-to-high therapeutic adherence, were very satisfied with their inhaler, and found it easy to use [42].
A national multicenter observational study (the INHALA ZS study) that evaluated clinical efficacy, disease control, and satisfaction with BF Spiromax® versus BF Turbuhaler® in asthma and COPD patients was recently conducted in Spain. A total of 91 adults (66 with asthma and 25 with COPD) were selected from 2 primary care centers. All patients had been receiving treatment at baseline with BF Turbuhaler® continuously for ≥ 3 months. Of these 91 subjects, 53 who showed therapeutic failure, lack of adherence, or non-compliance began treatment with BF Spiromax®, while 33 continued treatment with BF Turbuhaler®. The authors concluded that BF Spiromax® was superior to BF Turbuhaler® in terms of disease control in asthma patients measured with the Asthma Control Test (ACT), with an absolute mean effect at 3 months of 3.3 [95% CI − 0.4 to 2.8], p < 0.001. In the COPD cohort, disease control was measured with the COPD Assessment Test (CAT), which showed an absolute mean effect at 3 months of 4.34 [95% CI − 0.4 to 2.8], p < 0.001. Similarly, BF Spiromax® was superior in terms of satisfaction (Feeling of Satisfaction with Inhaler-FSI-10 questionnaire) (mean absolute effect in asthma 9.5 [95% CI 6.4–12.6], p < 0.001, and mean absolute effect in COPD of 10.4 [95% CI 6.87–14.01], p < 0.001). BF Spiromax® also showed non-inferiority to BF Turbuhaler® in clinical efficacy according to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) [43, 44].
Another retrospective cohort study in routine clinical practice conducted in the UK collected data from adults with asthma and COPD treated with inhaled ICS/LABA. The researchers assessed the non-inferiority of BF Spiromax® after switching from another inhaler compared with continuing the original inhaler, according to a risk management algorithm. In the 385 subjects who switched to BF Spiromax® (253 with asthma and 132 with COPD), non-inferiority was observed compared to the 1091 subjects who did not switch (743 with asthma and 348 with COPD) (non-significant difference + 6.6%; [95% CI − 0.3 to 13.5]). Asthma patients who switched to BF Spiromax® compared with those who continued BF Turbuhaler® reported fewer exacerbations (risk ratio [RR] 0.76; [95% CI 0.60–0.99] p = 0.044), were less likely to use high daily doses of short-acting β2 agonists (SABA) (odds ratio [OR] 0.71; [95% CI 0.52–0.98; p = 0.034]), used fewer SABA inhalers (RR 0.92; [95% CI 0.86–0.99]; p = 0.019), and were more likely to achieve treatment stability (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.02–2.04; p = 0.037). There were no significant differences in these variables in COPD patients. The authors concluded that the use of BF Spiromax® in routine clinical practice by patients with asthma and COPD was not inferior to BF Turbuhaler® in terms of disease control. Asthma patients who switched to BF Spiromax® showed reduced exacerbations, lower SABA use, and greater treatment stability compared with those who continued BF Turbuhaler® [45, 46].
A 12-week prospective observational study conducted in Germany also assessed satisfaction, handling errors, disease control, and safety in adults with asthma and COPD treated with BF Spiromax®. Overall, 3943 patients were included, 2707 (68.7%) of which had asthma and 1236 (31.3%) COPD. At the start of the study, according to the Satisfaction with Inhalers and Preference questionnaire, 60.1% of the patients were satisfied-to-very satisfied with their previous inhaler, and this increased to 88.8% after using BF Spiromax®. Overall, 62.1% of pre-treated patients preferred BF Spiromax® over their old inhaler. According to the modified Easy Low Instruction Over Time checklist, the rate of handling errors observed with BF Spiromax® at week 12 was lower than at baseline (11.9% vs. 25.5% of the patients, respectively). After 12 weeks, 77.4% showed improved (minimally, much, or very much) overall health status compared to baseline. The severity of the disease assessed by both clinicians and patients improved during the study in both patients with asthma and COPD. BF Spiromax® was well tolerated. In conclusion, BF Spiromax® was associated with high satisfaction, a low handling error rate, and an improvement in clinical outcomes in patients in routine clinical practice [47].
Finally, a prospective, multicenter, observational study was conducted in France in 1435 adults with asthma who switched from their previous inhaler, BF Turbuhaler® or Seretide® Diskus® (fluticasone/salmeterol propionate), to BF Spiromax®. After 12 weeks of use, inhaler techniques and the relationship between critical errors and disease control were assessed, and factors related to handling errors were identified. At the end of the study, 67% of patients were using BF Spiromax® without handling errors and 88% without critical handling errors. In general, the presence of comorbidities was associated with handling errors, while concurrent illness that could affect device management and prior training was associated with critical handling errors. Most patients (85.4%) preferred BF Spiromax® over their previous device. Inadequately controlled or uncontrolled asthma levels were reduced from baseline in patients using BF Spiromax® (8.6% vs. 64.6%), and were higher in individuals with critical handling errors. In conclusion, effective patient training, correct inhaler technique, adherence, and devices associated with high patient satisfaction are interrelated factors key to the successful delivery of inhaled therapy in this disease. In addition, inhaler technique and patient satisfaction with the device should be routinely assessed in patients treated with uncontrolled asthma [48]. Table 2 lists observational studies in routine clinical practice conducted with the Spiromax®, Turbuhaler®, and Easyhaler® devices.
Table 2
Observational studies reporting PROs and handling errors with Spiromax®, Turbuhaler®, and Easyhaler®
Study
Design
Population
Duration
Objective
No. patients
Main findings
Giner et al. [15]
Observational, multicenter, international study
Adults with asthma or COPD
Single visit
To evaluate the appropriate use and PROs of BF Spiromax® and BF Turbuhaler®
N = 175
• BF Spiromax® showed a lower total number of errors vs. BF Turbuhaler® (1.4 vs. 1.9; p < 0.001) and fewer handling errors (0.5 vs. 0.8; p < 0.001), respectively.
      
• BF Spiromax® is easier to learn how to use (p < 0,001), easier to prepare (p < 0,001), and comfortable in terms of weight and size (p < 0,001) and more patients felt that they were using the inhaler correctly (p < 0.001).
      
• BF Spiromax® was preferred by a greater number of patients (79.5%) over BF Turbuhaler®.
van der Palen et al. [42]
Observational, multicenter, international, cross-sectional study
Adults with asthma or COPD
Single visit
To evaluate adherence, satisfaction, and ease of use of BF Spiromax®
N = 1101
• Overall, 72.5% showed medium-to-high adherence (MMAS-8 ≥ 6).
      
• Satisfaction was 8.9 (± 1.6) (scale from 1 to 10), with 98.8% being satisfied and 85.4% very satisfied.
      
• Ease of use was 9.1 (± 1.3) (scale 1 to 10).
Piedra Castro et al. [43], De Simón Gutiérrez et al. [44]
Observational, multicenter, national study
Patients with asthma and COPD
3 months
To evaluate the efficacy, disease control, and satisfaction of BF Spiromax® vs. BF Turbuhaler®
N = 91
• BF Spiromax® was superior in terms of disease control (ACT absolute mean effect 3.3 [95% CI − 0.4 to 2.8] p < 0.001 and CAT absolute mean effect − 4.34 [95% CI − 0.4 to 2.8], p < 0.001).
      
• BF Spiromax® was superior in terms of satisfaction: FSI-10 (in asthma, mean absolute effect 9.5 [95% CI 6.4–12.6], p < 0.001, and in COPD mean absolute effect of 10.4 [95% CI 6.87–14.01], p < 0.001).
      
• BF Spiromax® showed non-inferiority vs. BF Turbuhaler® in clinical efficacy according to FEV1.
Voorham et al. [45]
Observational, cohort, retrospective, case-matched study
Adults with asthma and COPD
1 year
To evaluate non-inferiority in disease control after switching to BF Spiromax® vs. continuing with BF Turbuhaler®
N = 385
Asthma N = 253
COPD N = 132
• BF Spiromax® was not inferior to BF Turbuhaler® in disease control (difference + 6.6%; [95% CI − 0.3 to 13.5]).
      
• Asthma patients using BF Spiromax® reported fewer exacerbations (RR 0.76; [95% CI 0.60–0.99] p = 0.044); were less likely to use high daily doses of SABA (OR 0.71; [95% CI 0.52–0.98; p = 0.034]); used fewer SABA inhalers (RR 0.92; [95% CI 0.86–0.99]; p = 0.019); and were more likely to achieve treatment stability (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.02–2.04; p = 0.037).
      
• No significant differences were observed in COPD.
Gillissen et al. [47]
Prospective observational study
Adults with asthma and COPD
12 weeks
To evaluate satisfaction, errors, disease control, and safety in patients who switched to BF Spiromax®
N = 3943 Asthma N = 2707
COPD N = 1236
• The proportion of patients who were satisfied or very satisfied increased from 60.1 to 88.8%.
      
• A total of 62.1% of patients preferred BF Spiromax® over their old inhaler.
      
• Fewer handling errors were observed with BF Spiromax® (11.9% vs. 25.5%) vs. their old inhaler.
      
• The health status of 77.4% of patients improved.
      
• Disease severity improved according to clinicians and patients.
Roche et al. [48]
Prospective multicenter observational study
Adults with asthma
12 weeks
To evaluate inhaler techniques, the relationship between critical errors and disease control, and factors related to device handling errors after switching to BF Spiromax®
N = 1435
• Overall, 67% of patients used BF Spiromax® without handling errors and 88% without critical handling errors.
      
• Comorbidities were associated with handling errors, while concurrent illness that could affect device handling and prior training were associated with critical handling errors.
      
• Most patients (85.4%) preferred BF Spiromax® over their previous device (BF Turbuhaler® or Seretide® Diskus®).
      
• Levels of inadequately controlled-uncontrolled asthma were lower in patients using BF Spiromax® (8.6% vs. 64.6%), but higher in the presence of critical handling errors.
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, PRO patient-reported outcome, BF budesonide and formoterol, MMAS-8 8-item Morisky medication adherence scale, ACT asthma control test, CI confidence interval, CAT COPD assessment test, FSI-10 feeling of satisfaction with inhaler questionnaire, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, RR risk ratio, SABA short-acting beta-agonist, OR odds ratio

Conclusions: The Search for an Ideal DPI for the Management of Asthma and COPD

In the clinical trials under review, most individuals preferred Spiromax® and found it easier to use than its competitors. In asthma patients, favorable PROs were accompanied by increased disease control associated with the use of BF Spiromax®.
According to the observational studies analyzed, Spiromax®/BF Spiromax® demonstrated lower handling error rates, greater preference for use, and greater adherence compared to other inhalers in patients with asthma and COPD. In terms of disease control, BF Spiromax® proved to be superior or non-inferior to its competitors.
Since patient preferences may vary among DPIs, patient choices should be considered when selecting a device, in order to optimize adherence and control of asthma and COPD. Only a good patient-inhaler combination will improve the effectiveness of treatments and medical care in this population.

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Maria Romero for the medical writing of this paper and Drs. José Tomás Gómez Sáenz, José Ignacio Prieto Romo, Leovigildo Ginel Mendoza for their contributions to the review.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors of this review have received funding from Laboratorios Bial.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Open Access

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://​creativecommons.​org/​licenses/​by/​4.​0/​), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided appropriate credit is given to the original author(s) and the source, a link is provided to the Creative Commons license, and any changes are indicated.
Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://​creativecommons.​org/​licenses/​by/​4.​0/​.

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Literatur
4.
Zurück zum Zitat Chrystyn H, Lavorini F. The dry powder inhaler features of the Easyhaler that benefit the management of patients. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2020;14(4):345–51. CrossRef Chrystyn H, Lavorini F. The dry powder inhaler features of the Easyhaler that benefit the management of patients. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2020;14(4):345–51. CrossRef
5.
Zurück zum Zitat Miravitlles M, Sliwinski P, Rhee CK, Costello RW, Carter V, Tan JHY, et al. Predictive value of control of COPD for risk of exacerbations: an international, prospective study. Respirology. 2020;25(11):1136–43. CrossRef Miravitlles M, Sliwinski P, Rhee CK, Costello RW, Carter V, Tan JHY, et al. Predictive value of control of COPD for risk of exacerbations: an international, prospective study. Respirology. 2020;25(11):1136–43. CrossRef
6.
Zurück zum Zitat Price D, Fletcher M, Van Der Molen T. Asthma control and management in 8,000 European patients: the REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience (REALISE) survey. NPJ Prim Care Respir Med. 2014;24. Price D, Fletcher M, Van Der Molen T. Asthma control and management in 8,000 European patients: the REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience (REALISE) survey. NPJ Prim Care Respir Med. 2014;24.
7.
Zurück zum Zitat Levy ML, Carroll W, Izquierdo Alonso JL, Keller C, Lavorini F, et al. Understanding dry powder inhalers: key technical and patient preference attributes. Adv Ther. 2019;36(10):2547–57. CrossRef Levy ML, Carroll W, Izquierdo Alonso JL, Keller C, Lavorini F, et al. Understanding dry powder inhalers: key technical and patient preference attributes. Adv Ther. 2019;36(10):2547–57. CrossRef
8.
Zurück zum Zitat AL-Jahdali H, Ahmed A, AL-Harbi A, Khan M, Baharoon S, Bin Salih S, et al. Improper inhaler technique is associated with poor asthma control and frequent emergency department visits. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2013;9(1). AL-Jahdali H, Ahmed A, AL-Harbi A, Khan M, Baharoon S, Bin Salih S, et al. Improper inhaler technique is associated with poor asthma control and frequent emergency department visits. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2013;9(1).
9.
Zurück zum Zitat Crompton GK, Barnes PJ, Broeders M, Corrigan C, Corbetta L, Dekhuijzen R, et al. The need to improve inhalation technique in Europe: a report from the Aerosol Drug Management Improvement Team. Respir Med. 2006;100(9):1479–94. CrossRef Crompton GK, Barnes PJ, Broeders M, Corrigan C, Corbetta L, Dekhuijzen R, et al. The need to improve inhalation technique in Europe: a report from the Aerosol Drug Management Improvement Team. Respir Med. 2006;100(9):1479–94. CrossRef
10.
Zurück zum Zitat Mäkelä MJ, Backer V, Hedegaard M, Larsson K. Adherence to inhaled therapies, health outcomes and costs in patients with asthma and COPD. Respir Med. 2013;107(10):1481–90. CrossRef Mäkelä MJ, Backer V, Hedegaard M, Larsson K. Adherence to inhaled therapies, health outcomes and costs in patients with asthma and COPD. Respir Med. 2013;107(10):1481–90. CrossRef
11.
Zurück zum Zitat Melani AS, Bonavia M, Cilenti V, Cinti C, Lodi M, Martucci P, et al. Inhaler mishandling remains common in real life and is associated with reduced disease control. Respir Med. 2011;105(6):930–8. CrossRef Melani AS, Bonavia M, Cilenti V, Cinti C, Lodi M, Martucci P, et al. Inhaler mishandling remains common in real life and is associated with reduced disease control. Respir Med. 2011;105(6):930–8. CrossRef
12.
Zurück zum Zitat Gregoriano C, Dieterle T, Breitenstein AL, Dürr S, Baum A, Maier S, et al. Use and inhalation technique of inhaled medication in patients with asthma and COPD: data from a randomized controlled trial. Respir Res. 2018;19(1):1–15. CrossRef Gregoriano C, Dieterle T, Breitenstein AL, Dürr S, Baum A, Maier S, et al. Use and inhalation technique of inhaled medication in patients with asthma and COPD: data from a randomized controlled trial. Respir Res. 2018;19(1):1–15. CrossRef
14.
Zurück zum Zitat Canonica GW, Arp J, Keegstra JR, Chrystyn H. Spiromax, a new dry powder inhaler: dose consistency under simulated real-world conditions. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2015;28(5):309–19. CrossRef Canonica GW, Arp J, Keegstra JR, Chrystyn H. Spiromax, a new dry powder inhaler: dose consistency under simulated real-world conditions. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2015;28(5):309–19. CrossRef
15.
Zurück zum Zitat Giner J, Villarnovo Cerrillo M, Aboín Sierra J, Casas Herrero L, Patino O, Plaza V. Assessment of inhalation errors, training time and patient preference for DuoResp ® Spiromax ® and Symbicort ® Turbuhaler ® in patients with asthma and COPD. Eur Clin Respir J. 2021;8(1). Giner J, Villarnovo Cerrillo M, Aboín Sierra J, Casas Herrero L, Patino O, Plaza V. Assessment of inhalation errors, training time and patient preference for DuoResp ® Spiromax ® and Symbicort ® Turbuhaler ® in patients with asthma and COPD. Eur Clin Respir J. 2021;8(1).
16.
Zurück zum Zitat Chrystyn H, Safioti G, Keegstra JR, Gopalan G. Effect of inhalation profile and throat geometry on predicted lung deposition of budesonide and formoterol (BF) in COPD: an in-vitro comparison of Spiromax with Turbuhaler. Int J Pharm. 2015;491(1–2):268–76. CrossRef Chrystyn H, Safioti G, Keegstra JR, Gopalan G. Effect of inhalation profile and throat geometry on predicted lung deposition of budesonide and formoterol (BF) in COPD: an in-vitro comparison of Spiromax with Turbuhaler. Int J Pharm. 2015;491(1–2):268–76. CrossRef
17.
Zurück zum Zitat Atkins PJ. Dry powder inhalers: an overview - PubMed. Respir Care. 2005;50:1304–12. PubMed Atkins PJ. Dry powder inhalers: an overview - PubMed. Respir Care. 2005;50:1304–12. PubMed
19.
Zurück zum Zitat Haidl P, Heindl S, Siemon K, Bernacka M, Cloes RM. Inhalation device requirements for patients’ inhalation maneuvers. Respir Med. 2016;118:65–75. CrossRef Haidl P, Heindl S, Siemon K, Bernacka M, Cloes RM. Inhalation device requirements for patients’ inhalation maneuvers. Respir Med. 2016;118:65–75. CrossRef
20.
Zurück zum Zitat Gálffy G, Szilasi M, Tamási L. Effectiveness and patient satisfaction with budesonide/formoterol Easyhaler ® among patients with asthma or COPD switching from previous treatment: a real-world study of patient-reported outcomes. Pulm Ther. 2019;5(2):165–77. CrossRef Gálffy G, Szilasi M, Tamási L. Effectiveness and patient satisfaction with budesonide/formoterol Easyhaler ® among patients with asthma or COPD switching from previous treatment: a real-world study of patient-reported outcomes. Pulm Ther. 2019;5(2):165–77. CrossRef
21.
Zurück zum Zitat Price D, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Briggs A, Chrystyn H, Rand C, Scheuch G, et al. Inhaler competence in asthma: common errors, barriers to use and recommended solutions. Respir Med. 2013 Dec 20;107(1):37–46. Price D, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Briggs A, Chrystyn H, Rand C, Scheuch G, et al. Inhaler competence in asthma: common errors, barriers to use and recommended solutions. Respir Med. 2013 Dec 20;107(1):37–46.
22.
Zurück zum Zitat Brocklebank D, Ram F, Wright J, Barry P, Cates C, Davies L, et al. Comparison of the effectiveness of inhaler devices in asthma and chronic obstructive airways disease: a systematic review of the literature. Health Technol Assess. 2001;5(26). Brocklebank D, Ram F, Wright J, Barry P, Cates C, Davies L, et al. Comparison of the effectiveness of inhaler devices in asthma and chronic obstructive airways disease: a systematic review of the literature. Health Technol Assess. 2001;5(26).
23.
Zurück zum Zitat O’Connor BJ. The ideal inhaler: design and characteristics to improve outcomes. Respir Med. 2004;98(Suppl A). O’Connor BJ. The ideal inhaler: design and characteristics to improve outcomes. Respir Med. 2004;98(Suppl A).
24.
Zurück zum Zitat Lavorini F, Magnan A, Christophe Dubus J, Voshaar T, Corbetta L, Broeders M, et al. Effect of incorrect use of dry powder inhalers on management of patients with asthma and COPD. Respir Med. 2008;102(4):593–604. CrossRef Lavorini F, Magnan A, Christophe Dubus J, Voshaar T, Corbetta L, Broeders M, et al. Effect of incorrect use of dry powder inhalers on management of patients with asthma and COPD. Respir Med. 2008;102(4):593–604. CrossRef
25.
Zurück zum Zitat Molimard M. How to achieve good compliance and adherence with inhalation therapy. Curr Med Res Opin. 2005;21(Suppl 4). Molimard M. How to achieve good compliance and adherence with inhalation therapy. Curr Med Res Opin. 2005;21(Suppl 4).
26.
Zurück zum Zitat Thomas M, Williams AE. Are outcomes the same with all dry powder inhalers? Int J Clin Pract Suppl. 2005;59(149):33–5. CrossRef Thomas M, Williams AE. Are outcomes the same with all dry powder inhalers? Int J Clin Pract Suppl. 2005;59(149):33–5. CrossRef
27.
Zurück zum Zitat Price DB, Román-Rodríguez M, McQueen RB, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Carter V, Gruffydd-Jones K, et al. Inhaler errors in the CRITIKAL study: type, frequency, and association with asthma outcomes. J allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017;5(4):1071-1081.e9. CrossRef Price DB, Román-Rodríguez M, McQueen RB, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Carter V, Gruffydd-Jones K, et al. Inhaler errors in the CRITIKAL study: type, frequency, and association with asthma outcomes. J allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017;5(4):1071-1081.e9. CrossRef
28.
Zurück zum Zitat Sanchis J, Gich I, Pedersen S. Systematic review of errors in inhaler use: has patient technique improved over time? Chest. 2016;150(2):394–406. CrossRef Sanchis J, Gich I, Pedersen S. Systematic review of errors in inhaler use: has patient technique improved over time? Chest. 2016;150(2):394–406. CrossRef
29.
Zurück zum Zitat Ocakli B, Ozmen I, Tunçay EA, Gungor S, Altinoz H, Adiguzel N, et al. A comparative analysis of errors in inhaler technique among COPD versus asthma patients. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. [Internet]. 2018;13:2941–7. Ocakli B, Ozmen I, Tunçay EA, Gungor S, Altinoz H, Adiguzel N, et al. A comparative analysis of errors in inhaler technique among COPD versus asthma patients. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. [Internet]. 2018;13:2941–7.
30.
Zurück zum Zitat Mäkelä MJ, Backer V, Hedegaard M, Larsson K. Adherence to inhaled therapies, health outcomes and costs in patients with asthma and COPD. Respir Med. 2013;107(10):1481–90. CrossRef Mäkelä MJ, Backer V, Hedegaard M, Larsson K. Adherence to inhaled therapies, health outcomes and costs in patients with asthma and COPD. Respir Med. 2013;107(10):1481–90. CrossRef
31.
Zurück zum Zitat Cerveri I, Locatelli F, Zoia M, Corsico A, Accordini S, de Marco R, et al. International variations in asthma treatment compliance: the results of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Eur Respir J. 1999;14:288–94. CrossRef Cerveri I, Locatelli F, Zoia M, Corsico A, Accordini S, de Marco R, et al. International variations in asthma treatment compliance: the results of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Eur Respir J. 1999;14:288–94. CrossRef
32.
Zurück zum Zitat Restrepo RD, Alvarez MT, Wittnebel LD, Sorenson H, Wettstein R, Vines DL, et al. Medication adherence issues in patients treated for COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2008;3(3):371–84. CrossRef Restrepo RD, Alvarez MT, Wittnebel LD, Sorenson H, Wettstein R, Vines DL, et al. Medication adherence issues in patients treated for COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2008;3(3):371–84. CrossRef
33.
Zurück zum Zitat George M. Adherence in asthma and copd: new strategies for an old problem. Respir Care. 2018;63(6):818–31. CrossRef George M. Adherence in asthma and copd: new strategies for an old problem. Respir Care. 2018;63(6):818–31. CrossRef
34.
Zurück zum Zitat Aydemir Y. Assessment of the factors affecting the failure to use inhaler devices before and after training. Respir Med. 2015;109(4):451–8. CrossRef Aydemir Y. Assessment of the factors affecting the failure to use inhaler devices before and after training. Respir Med. 2015;109(4):451–8. CrossRef
35.
Zurück zum Zitat Mercieca-Bebber R, King MT, Calvert MJ, Stockler MR, Friedlander M. The importance of patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials and strategies for future optimization. Patient Relat Outcome Meas. 2018;9:353–67. CrossRef Mercieca-Bebber R, King MT, Calvert MJ, Stockler MR, Friedlander M. The importance of patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials and strategies for future optimization. Patient Relat Outcome Meas. 2018;9:353–67. CrossRef
36.
Zurück zum Zitat Deshpande P, Sudeepthi Bl, Rajan S, Abdul Nazir C. Patient-reported outcomes: a new era in clinical research. Perspect Clin Res. 2011;2(4):137. Deshpande P, Sudeepthi Bl, Rajan S, Abdul Nazir C. Patient-reported outcomes: a new era in clinical research. Perspect Clin Res. 2011;2(4):137.
37.
Zurück zum Zitat Sandler N, Holländer J, Långström D, Santtila P, Saukkonen A, Torvinen S. Evaluation of inhaler handling-errors, inhaler perception and preference with Spiromax, Easyhaler and Turbuhaler devices among healthy Finnish volunteers: a single site, single visit crossover study (Finhaler). BMJ Open Respir Res. 2016;3(1). Sandler N, Holländer J, Långström D, Santtila P, Saukkonen A, Torvinen S. Evaluation of inhaler handling-errors, inhaler perception and preference with Spiromax, Easyhaler and Turbuhaler devices among healthy Finnish volunteers: a single site, single visit crossover study (Finhaler). BMJ Open Respir Res. 2016;3(1).
38.
Zurück zum Zitat Rönmark P, Jagorstrand B, Safioti G, Menon S, Bjermer L. Comparison of correct technique and preference for Spiromax ®, Easyhaler ® and Turbuhaler ®: a single-site, single-visit, crossover study in inhaler-naïve adult volunteers. Eur Clin Respir J. [Internet]. 2018;5(1). Rönmark P, Jagorstrand B, Safioti G, Menon S, Bjermer L. Comparison of correct technique and preference for Spiromax ®, Easyhaler ® and Turbuhaler ®: a single-site, single-visit, crossover study in inhaler-naïve adult volunteers. Eur Clin Respir J. [Internet]. 2018;5(1).
39.
Zurück zum Zitat Price DB, Thomas V, Richard Dekhuijzen PN, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Roche N, Lavorini F, et al. Evaluation of inhaler technique and achievement and maintenance of mastery of budesonide/formoterol Spiromax ® compared with budesonide/formoterol Turbuhaler ® in adult patients with asthma: the Easy Low Instruction Over Time (ELIOT) study. BMC Pulm Med. 2018;18(1):1–14. CrossRef Price DB, Thomas V, Richard Dekhuijzen PN, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Roche N, Lavorini F, et al. Evaluation of inhaler technique and achievement and maintenance of mastery of budesonide/formoterol Spiromax ® compared with budesonide/formoterol Turbuhaler ® in adult patients with asthma: the Easy Low Instruction Over Time (ELIOT) study. BMC Pulm Med. 2018;18(1):1–14. CrossRef
40.
Zurück zum Zitat Virchow JC, Rodriguez-Roisin R, Papi A, Shah TP, Gopalan G. A randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy efficacy and safety study of budesonide–formoterol Spiromax ® compared to budesonide–formoterol Turbuhaler ® in adults and adolescents with persistent asthma. BMC Pulm Med. 2016;16(1). Virchow JC, Rodriguez-Roisin R, Papi A, Shah TP, Gopalan G. A randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy efficacy and safety study of budesonide–formoterol Spiromax ® compared to budesonide–formoterol Turbuhaler ® in adults and adolescents with persistent asthma. BMC Pulm Med. 2016;16(1).
41.
Zurück zum Zitat Schreiber J, Sonnenburg T, Luecke E. Inhaler devices in asthma and COPD patients - a prospective cross-sectional study on inhaler preferences and error rates. BMC Pulm Med. 2020;20(1):1–12. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Schreiber J, Sonnenburg T, Luecke E. Inhaler devices in asthma and COPD patients - a prospective cross-sectional study on inhaler preferences and error rates. BMC Pulm Med. 2020;20(1):1–12. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
42.
Zurück zum Zitat van der Palen J, Cerveri I, Roche N, Singh D, Plaza V, Gonzalez C, et al. DuoResp ® Spiromax ® adherence, satisfaction and ease of use: findings from a multi-country observational study in patients with asthma and COPD in Europe (SPRINT). J Asthma. 2020;57(10):1110–8. van der Palen J, Cerveri I, Roche N, Singh D, Plaza V, Gonzalez C, et al. DuoResp ® Spiromax ® adherence, satisfaction and ease of use: findings from a multi-country observational study in patients with asthma and COPD in Europe (SPRINT). J Asthma. 2020;57(10):1110–8.
43.
Zurück zum Zitat Piedra Castro R, et al. Inhala ZS: Eficacia, control de la enfermedad y satisfacción con el dispositivo de inhalación en pacientes con asma. In: Semergen. 2019;45(Espec Congr 1):148. Piedra Castro R, et al. Inhala ZS: Eficacia, control de la enfermedad y satisfacción con el dispositivo de inhalación en pacientes con asma. In: Semergen. 2019;45(Espec Congr 1):148.
44.
Zurück zum Zitat De Simón Gutiérrez R, et al. Inhala ZS: Eficacia, control de la enfermedad y satisfacción con el dispositivo de inhalación en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva. In: Semergen. 2019;5(Espec Congr 1):149. De Simón Gutiérrez R, et al. Inhala ZS: Eficacia, control de la enfermedad y satisfacción con el dispositivo de inhalación en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva. In: Semergen. 2019;5(Espec Congr 1):149.
45.
Zurück zum Zitat Voorham J, Roche N, Benhaddi H, Van Der Tol M, Carter V, Van Boven JFM, et al. Real-world effectiveness evaluation of budesonide/formoterol Spiromax for the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the UK. BMJ Open. 2018;8(10). Voorham J, Roche N, Benhaddi H, Van Der Tol M, Carter V, Van Boven JFM, et al. Real-world effectiveness evaluation of budesonide/formoterol Spiromax for the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the UK. BMJ Open. 2018;8(10).
46.
Zurück zum Zitat Voorham J, Roche N, Benhaddi H. Correction: Real-world effectiveness evaluation of budesonide/formoterol Spiromax for the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the UK. BMJ Open. [Internet]. 2019;9(6):22051–3. Voorham J, Roche N, Benhaddi H. Correction: Real-world effectiveness evaluation of budesonide/formoterol Spiromax for the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the UK. BMJ Open. [Internet]. 2019;9(6):22051–3.
47.
Zurück zum Zitat Gillissen A, Gessner C, Hechenbichler K, Herth FJF, Juenemann R, Kanniess F, et al. Patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes with Budesonide plus formoterol spiromax for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a real-world, observational trial. Respiration. 2019;97(4):292–301. CrossRef Gillissen A, Gessner C, Hechenbichler K, Herth FJF, Juenemann R, Kanniess F, et al. Patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes with Budesonide plus formoterol spiromax for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a real-world, observational trial. Respiration. 2019;97(4):292–301. CrossRef
48.
Zurück zum Zitat Roche N, Aguilaniu B, Paternotte S, Dallery N. Real-life association between inhaler technique, patient preference and asthma control in patients with uncontrolled asthma switched to budesonide/formoterol DuoResp ® Spiromax ® combination. J Asthma. 2021;0(0):1–10. Roche N, Aguilaniu B, Paternotte S, Dallery N. Real-life association between inhaler technique, patient preference and asthma control in patients with uncontrolled asthma switched to budesonide/formoterol DuoResp ® Spiromax ® combination. J Asthma. 2021;0(0):1–10.
Metadaten
Titel
Narrative Review of the Role of Patient-Reported Outcomes and Inhaler Handling Errors in the Control of Asthma and COPD
verfasst von
Raúl De Simón Gutiérrez
Raúl Piedra Castro
Publikationsdatum
10.09.2022
Verlag
Springer US
Erschienen in
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports / Ausgabe 11/2022
Print ISSN: 1529-7322
Elektronische ISSN: 1534-6315
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11882-022-01041-2

Newsletter

Bestellen Sie unseren kostenlosen Newsletter Update HNO und bleiben Sie gut informiert – ganz bequem per eMail.