01.12.2022 | Original Article
Osteoporosis knowledge, health beliefs, and self-efficacy in Hong Kong Chinese men
Sue Seen Tsing Lo, Wai Ming Kok
Archives of Osteoporosis
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A total of 277 Hong Kong Chinese men participated in this prospective cohort study. Their osteoporosis knowledge was average. Their perceived susceptibility to osteoporosis was low. Barriers to lifestyle modifications were the strongest predictor for self-efficacy in adopting these activities. These results are useful for planning osteoporosis public awareness campaigns for men.
Male osteoporosis had long been neglected despite one-third of fractures occurring in men. Lifestyle modification through education is the main tactic in osteoporosis prevention, but current programs and strategies are designed for postmenopausal women. Understanding men’s knowledge, health belief, and self-efficacy in adopting osteoporosis prevention strategies can help to design a specific program for men.
A prospective cohort study was conducted in three men’s health clinics in Hong Kong from September to October 2020, recruiting 277 men aged ≥ 20 years. They completed a questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic data, 14 general questions from the Facts on Osteoporosis Quiz (FOOQ), Male Osteoporosis Knowledge Quiz (MOKQ), Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS), and Osteoporosis Self-Efficacy Scale (OSES). Scores from these scales and their association with sociodemographic data were reported. Correlations between age, knowledge, health beliefs, and self-efficacy were studied using the Health Belief Model.
The mean age was 36.4 years old, and 52% had university education. Their mean FOOQ + MOKQ score was 10.8 out of 20; mean OHBS score was 129.2 out of 210; and mean OSE-Exercise and OSE-Calcium scores were 66.4 and 68.9 out of 100 respectively. Self-efficacy of exercise was correlated with young age, perceived exercise benefits, and little barriers to exercise (p < 0.01). Self-efficacy of calcium intake was positively correlated with health motivation and self-efficacy of exercise and negatively correlated with barriers to calcium intake (p < 0.01).
Male osteoporosis awareness programs should focus on improving knowledge, enhancing awareness on susceptibility, promoting benefits of lifestyle modification, and helping men overcome perceived barriers.