Maternal inhalation exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENM) has been associated with microvascular dysfunction and adverse cardiovascular responses. Pregnancy requires coordinated vascular adaptation and growth that are imperative for survival. Key events in pregnancy hallmark distinct periods of gestation such as implantation, spiral artery remodeling, placentation, and trophoblast invasion. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a critical vasoactive mediator responsible for adaptations and is implicated in the pathology of preeclampsia. If perturbations occur during gestation, such as those caused by ENM inhalation exposure, then maternal–fetal health consequences may occur. Our study aimed to identify the period of gestation in which maternal microvascular functional and fetal health are most vulnerable. Additionally, we wanted to determine if Ang II sensitivity and receptor density is altered due to exposure. Dams were exposed to ENM aerosols (nano-titanium dioxide) during three gestational windows: early (EE, gestational day (GD) 2–6), mid (ME, GD 8–12) or late (LE, GD 15–19). Within the EE group dry pup mass decreased by 16.3% and uterine radial artery wall to lumen ratio (WLR) increased by 25.9%. Uterine radial artery response to Ang II sensitivity increased by 40.5% in the EE group. Ang II receptor density was altered in the EE and LE group with decreased levels of AT2R. We conclude that early gestational maternal inhalation exposures resulted in altered vascular anatomy and physiology. Exposure during this time-period results in altered vascular reactivity and changes to uterine radial artery WLR, leading to decreased perfusion to the fetus and resulting in lower pup mass.