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Erschienen in: Current Diabetes Reports 9/2022

04.07.2022 | Obesity (K Gadde and P Singh, Section Editors)

Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Among Individuals with Excess Weight: Weight Trajectory Effects

verfasst von: Arthur H. Owora, David B. Allison, Xuan Zhang, Nana Gletsu-Miller, Kishore M. Gadde

Erschienen in: Current Diabetes Reports | Ausgabe 9/2022

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Abstract 

Purpose of Review

Increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) among individuals with overweight or obesity is well-established; however, questions remain about the temporal dynamics of weight change (gain or loss) on the natural course of T2D in this at-risk population. Existing epidemiologic evidence is limited to studies that discretely sample and assess excess weight and T2D risk at different ages with limited follow-up, yet changes in weight may have time-varying and possibly non-linear effects on T2D risk. Predicting the impact of weight change on the risk of T2D is key to informing primary prevention. We critically review the relationship between weight change, trajectory groups (i.e., distinct weight change patterns), and T2D risk among individuals with excess weight in recently published T2D prevention randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and longitudinal cohort studies.

Recent Findings

Overall, weight trajectory groups have been shown to differ by age of onset, sex, and patterns of insulin resistance or beta-cell function biomarkers. Lifestyle (diet and physical activity), pharmacological, and surgical interventions can modify an individual’s weight trajectory. Adolescence is a critical etiologically relevant window during which onset of excess weight may be associated with higher risk of T2D. Changes in insulin resistance and beta-cell function biomarkers are distinct but related correlates of weight trajectory groups that evolve contemporaneously over time. These multi-trajectory markers are differentially associated with T2D risk.

Summary

T2D risk may differ by the age of onset and duration of excess body weight, and the type of weight loss intervention. A better understanding of the changes in weight, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell function as distinct but related correlates of T2D risk that evolve contemporaneously over time has important implications for designing and targeting primary prevention efforts.
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Metadaten
Titel
Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Among Individuals with Excess Weight: Weight Trajectory Effects
verfasst von
Arthur H. Owora
David B. Allison
Xuan Zhang
Nana Gletsu-Miller
Kishore M. Gadde
Publikationsdatum
04.07.2022
Verlag
Springer US
Erschienen in
Current Diabetes Reports / Ausgabe 9/2022
Print ISSN: 1534-4827
Elektronische ISSN: 1539-0829
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-022-01486-9

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