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01.12.2021 | Case report | Ausgabe 1/2021 Open Access

Thrombosis Journal 1/2021

Thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome in a child with human immunodeficiency virus: a rare case report

Zeitschrift:
Thrombosis Journal > Ausgabe 1/2021
Autoren:
Rong-Jing Dong, Su-Yun Lei, Jun Li, Xin-Ping Yang, Yu-Ye Li, Yun-Gui Zhang
Wichtige Hinweise
Rong-Jing Dong and Su-Yun Lei contributed equally to this work.

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Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Abstract

Background

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a non-inflammatory autoimmune disorder induced by antiphospholipid antibodies, which occurs exceedingly rarely in pediatric population and even more rarely reported in HIV positive children.

Case summary

A case of 11 years old boy had a sudden onset of swelling in his left lower leg along with pain which were worsening gradually. Initially, topical ointment was applied for 1 month which were ineffective in reducing pain and swelling. Instead, the symptoms were aggravated and suddenly spread to the proximal thigh, accompanied by dyskinesia of left lower leg. Both color doppler ultrasonography and vascular CT scan of left lower leg revealed deep venous thrombosis. His serum anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPLs) were tested positive. He was a known case of HIV virological failure with substantial HIV viral load (VL) despite receiving regular antiretroviral therapy (ART). His symptoms improved after giving aggressive antithrombotic and high dose corticosteroid treatments.

Conclusion

When pediatric patients develop thrombotic disease, APS also needs to be ruled out. The autoantibodies levels should be routinely tested to look for recurrent thrombosis in children with HIV/AIDS.
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