08.01.2019 | Original Article
Deceleration thoracic aortic ruptures in trauma center level I areas: a 6-year retrospective study
Jan Trlica, Štěpánka Kučerová, Eva Kočová, Jaromír Kočí, Petr Habal, Jan Raupach, Igor Guňka, Lukáš Nechvátal, Jiří Páral, Jan Šimek, Karel Šmejkal, Martin Frank, Tomáš Dědek
European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery
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This retrospective study aimed to analyze the trend of mortality due to thoracic aortic ruptures caused by deceleration injuries that occurred within the catchment area of Hradec Kralove University Hospital.
Materials and methods
The study sample comprised 175 patients who had sustained thoracic aortic ruptures caused by deceleration injuries and were transported to Hradec Kralove University Hospital in 2009–2014. The small proportion of patients enrolled in this retrospective study were diagnosed and treated at the emergency department (ED). However, the overwhelming majority of the sample comprised of patients who died at the accident scene and later underwent an autopsy at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in our hospital.
Of 175 patients, 150 underwent an autopsy. Of these, 139 individuals (79%) died at the incident scene, and 11 (6%) were transported to the ED and later died of their injuries. A total of 36 patients were admitted to the hospital; 29 were admitted primary (11 later died), and 7 were transferred. No deaths occurred in the group of secondary admissions. Thus, 31% of all patients hospitalized died following transport to the hospital. Of 175 patients, 15% (or 69% of all hospitalized patients) survived their injuries. Among patients who died as a result of thoracic aortic injury, no unexpected deaths were recorded (i.e., no deaths among patients with survival probability more than 50% = PS > 0.5).
Our results suggested that the lethality of thoracic aortic injuries might be minimized by transporting triage-positive patients directly to trauma centers. Accurate diagnoses and treatments were supported by admission chest X-rays, a massive transfusion protocol, and particularly, CT angiography, which is not routinely included in primary surveys. An additional prognostic parameter was clinical collaboration between an experienced trauma surgeon, an interventional radiologist, and a vascular or thoracic surgeon.