L. Ye and Y. Ren contributed equally.
The aim of this study was to examine whether decitabine priming prior to low-dose chemotherapeutic regimens could improve outcomes in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes—refractory anemia with excess of blasts (MDS-RAEB).
The current retrospective analysis included all MDS-RAEB patients receiving idarubicin/cytarabine (IA) or aclacinomycin/cytarabine (AA), with or without decitabine priming during a period from February 2010 to May 2015. Treatment response and toxicity were compared between patients receiving decitabine priming and those who did not. A panel of 6 MDS-related genes was examined using bone marrow specimens.
A total of 81 patients were included in the analysis: 40 received decitabine priming prior to chemotherapy (decitabine priming group). The median follow-up was 10.9 months (IQR: 6.2–21.9). The rate of overall response (OR) and complete remission (CR) was significantly higher in the decitabine priming group than in the chemotherapy group (OR: 75.0 vs. 51.2%, p = 0.027; CR: 55.0 vs. 29.3%, p = 0.019). Overall survival (OS) did not differ significantly between the two groups (19.5 vs. 14.7 months, p = 0.082). In a subgroup analysis that included only patients at < 60 years of age, the CR rate in the decitabine priming group was significantly higher than in the chemotherapy group (65.5 vs. 31.0%, p = 0.009). Survival benefit of decitabine priming was apparent in patients at < 60 years of age (22.4 months with 95% CI of 6.7–38.1 vs. 14.7 months with 95% CI of 11.4–18.0 months in the chemotherapy group, p = 0.028), patients with intermediate and unfavorable karyotypes (22.4 months with 95% CI of 15.1–29.7 vs. 11.9 months with 95% CI of 4.0–19.8 months in the chemotherapy group, p = 0.042), and patients with mutated splicing factor genes (35.3 months with 95% CI of 21.4–49.2 vs. 17.8 months with 95% CI of 13.8–21.8 months in the chemotherapy group, p = 0.039). Grade 3–4 hematological and non-hematological toxicities were not significantly different between the two groups.
Decitabine priming prior to low-dose chemotherapy could improve treatment responses in patients with MDS-RAEB.
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- Decitabine priming prior to low-dose chemotherapy improves patient outcomes in myelodysplastic syndromes-RAEB: a retrospective analysis vs. chemotherapy alone
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