Failure of circulating monocytes for adequate cytokine production is a trait of sepsis-induced immunosuppression; however, its duration and association with final outcome are poorly understood.
We conducted a substudy of a large randomised clinical trial. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated within the first 24 h from the onset of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in 95 patients with microbiologically confirmed or clinically suspected gram-negative infections. Isolation was repeated on days 3, 7 and 10. PBMCs were stimulated for cytokine production. The study endpoints were the differences between survivors and non-survivors, the persistence of immunosuppression, and determination of admission clinical signs that can lead to early identification of the likelihood of immunosuppression.
PBMCs of survivors produced significantly greater concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-γ and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor after day 3. Using ROC analysis, we found that TNF-α production less than 250 pg/ml after lipopolysaccharide stimulation on day 3 could discriminate patients from healthy control subjects; this was associated with a 5.18 OR of having an unfavourable outcome (p = 0.046). This trait persisted as long as day 10. Logistic regression analysis showed that cardiovascular failure on admission was the only independent predictor of defective TNF-α production on day 3.
Defective TNF-α production is a major trait of sepsis-induced immunosuppression. It is associated with significant risk for unfavourable outcome and persists until day 10. Cardiovascular failure on admission is predictive of defective TNF-α production during follow-up.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01223690. Registered on 18 October 2010.
Additional file 1: Table S1. Rationale for the selection of measured cytokines in supernatants of PBMCs. (DOCX 13 kb)13054_2017_1625_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Additional file 2: Table S2. p Values of comparisons between TNF-α production by PBMCs of healthy control subjects and patients with sepsis in relation to their 28-day outcomes. p Values are corrected according to the method of Bonferroni. (DOCX 14 kb)13054_2017_1625_MOESM2_ESM.docx
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- Decreased cytokine production by mononuclear cells after severe gram-negative infections: early clinical signs and association with final outcome
Evangelos J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis
- BioMed Central
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