The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12935-018-0639-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Lujun Chen, Jun Feng and Shaoxian Wu contributed equally to this work
Retinoic acid-induced protein I (RIG-I), known as a cytoplastic pattern recognition receptor, can recognize exogenous viral RNAs, and then initiate immune response. Recently, numerous studies also showed that RIG-I play an important role in oncogenesis and cancer progression as well. As of now, the expression pattern and the role of RIG-I in gastric cancer still remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the clinical associations of RIG-I expression in human gastric cancer tissues and further explore its important contribution in the regulation of malignant phenotype of gastric cancer cells.
Immunohistochemistry was performed to study the correlation between patients’ clinical parameters and RIG-I expression in gastric cancer tissues. Knockdown of RIG-I was achieved by RNAi technology to examine the contribution of RIG-I in the regulation of biological functions in the cell lines of human gastric cancer. The Affymetrix GeneChip was performed to figure out the differential gene expression profile between RIG-I wild type and RIG-I knockdown cell lines of gastric cancer.
Immunohistochemistry result demonstrated that the expression of RIG-I in gastric cancer tissues significantly correlated with pathological stage and patients’ prognoses. Furthermore, decreased RIG-I expression in human gastric cancer cell lines could significantly increase the cell migration, cell viability, and the ratio of cells in G2/M phase. Our microarray analysis also revealed that the differentially expressed gene profiles were enriched in related signal pathways or biological processes in KEGG or GO analysis respectively.
Our present findings showed that the decreased RIG-I expression significantly correlated with patients’ prognoses, and such down-regulation could promote the cell invasion in this malignancy.
Coussens LM, Werb Z. Inflammation and cancer. Nature. 2002;420(6917):860–7. CrossRef
Fox JG, Wang TC. Inflammation, atrophy, and gastric cancer. J Clin Investig. 2007;117(1):60–9. CrossRef
McCracken KW, Cata EM, Crawford CM, Sinagoga KL, Schumacher M, Rockich BE, Tsai YH, Mayhew CN, Spence JR, Zavros Y, et al. Modelling human development and disease in pluripotent stem-cell-derived gastric organoids. Nature. 2014;516(7531):400–4. CrossRef
Meylan E, Tschopp J, Karin M. Intracellular pattern recognition receptors in the host response. Nature. 2006;442(7098):39–44. CrossRef
Xu XX, Wan H, Nie L, Shao T, Xiang LX, Shao JZ. RIG-I: a multifunctional protein beyond a pattern recognition receptor. Protein Cell. 2018;9(3):246–53. CrossRef
Kato H, Sato S, Yoneyama M, Yamamoto M, Uematsu S, Matsui K, Tsujimura T, Takeda K, Fujita T, Takeuchi O, et al. Cell type-specific involvement of RIG-I in antiviral response. Immunity. 2005;23(1):19–28. CrossRef
Zhu H, Xu WY, Hu Z, Zhang H, Shen Y, Lu S, Wei C, Wang ZG. RNA virus receptor Rig-I monitors gut microbiota and inhibits colitis-associated colorectal cancer. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2017;36(1):2. CrossRef
Chen L, Zhai W, Zheng X, Xie Q, Zhou Q, Tao M, Zhu Y, Wu C, Jiang J. Decreased IFIT2 expression promotes gastric cancer progression and predicts poor prognosis of the patients. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018;45(1):15–25. CrossRef
Chen L, Xiong Y, Li J, Zheng X, Zhou Q, Turner A, Wu C, Lu B, Jiang J. PD-L1 expression promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human esophageal cancer. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42(6):2267–80. CrossRef
Chen L, Di D, Luo G, Zheng L, Tan Y, Zhang X, Xu N. Immunochemical staining of MT2-MMP correlates positively to angiogenesis of human esophageal cancer. Anticancer Res. 2010;30(10):4363–8. PubMed
Chen L, Sun J, Wu H, Zhou S, Tan Y, Tan M, Shan B, Lu B, Zhang X. B7-H4 expression associates with cancer progression and predicts patient’s survival in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2011;60(7):1047–55. CrossRef
Chen L, Chen J, Xu B, Wang Q, Zhou W, Zhang G, Sun J, Shi L, Pei H, Wu C, et al. B7-H3 expression associates with tumor invasion and patient’s poor survival in human esophageal cancer. Am J Trans Res. 2015;7(12):2646–60.
Guo H, Liu J, Ben Q, Qu Y, Li M, Wang Y, Chen W, Zhang J. The aspirin-induced long non-coding RNA OLA1P2 blocks phosphorylated STAT3 homodimer formation. Genome Biol. 2016;17:24. CrossRef
Hou J, Zhou Y, Zheng Y, Fan J, Zhou W, Ng IO, Sun H, Qin L, Qiu S, Lee JM, et al. Hepatic RIG-I predicts survival and interferon-alpha therapeutic response in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Cell. 2014;25(1):49–63. CrossRef
Liu Z, Dou C, Jia Y, Li Q, Zheng X, Yao Y, Liu Q, Song T. RIG-I suppresses the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by regulating MMP9. Int J Oncol. 2015;46(4):1710–20. CrossRef
Chen LC, Wang LJ, Tsang NM, Ojcius DM, Chen CC, Ouyang CN, Hsueh C, Liang Y, Chang KP, Chang YS. Tumour inflammasome-derived IL-1beta recruits neutrophils and improves local recurrence-free survival in EBV-induced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. EMBO Mol Med. 2012;4(12):1276–93. CrossRef
Yokota S, Okabayashi T, Rehli M, Fujii N, Amano K. Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharides upregulate toll-like receptor 4 expression and proliferation of gastric epithelial cells via the MEK1/2-ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Infect Immun. 2010;78(1):468–76. CrossRef
Yuan X, Zhou Y, Wang W, Li J, Xie G, Zhao Y, Xu D, Shen L. Activation of TLR4 signaling promotes gastric cancer progression by inducing mitochondrial ROS production. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e794. CrossRef
Tatsuta T, Imaizumi T, Shimoyama T, Sawaya M, Kunikazu T, Matsumiya T, Yoshida H, Satoh K, Fukuda S. Expression of melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 is increased in human gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori. J Clin Pathol. 2012;65(9):839–43. CrossRef
Kutikhin AG, Yuzhalin AE. C-type lectin receptors and RIG-I-like receptors: new points on the oncogenomics map. Cancer Manag Res. 2012;4:39–53. CrossRef
- Decreased RIG-I expression is associated with poor prognosis and promotes cell invasion in human gastric cancer
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Onkologie
Mail Icon II