The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2040-2392-5-35) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
MJ was involved in conducting the experiment, analyzing and interpreting data, and drafting the article. HK was involved in recruiting the participants, diagnosing the participants with ASD, conducting the experiment, analyzing and interpreting data, and drafting the article. DNS, TM (fifth author), and KI were involved in recruiting the participants and conducting the experiment. MI was involved in recruiting the participants, interpreting data, and drafting the article. TM (eighth author) was involved in recruiting the participants and diagnosing the participants with ASD. MA, SA, AT, YW, NS, and HO were involved in interpreting the data. TI was involved in designing, analyzing and interpreting data, and drafting the article. All the authors have read and approved the final manuscript.
Autism spectrum traits are postulated to lie on a continuum that extends between individuals with autism and individuals with typical development (TD). Social cognition properties that are deeply associated with autism spectrum traits have been linked to functional connectivity between regions within the brain’s default mode network (DMN). Previous studies have shown that the resting-state functional connectivities (rs-FCs) of DMN are low and show negative correlation with the level of autism spectrum traits in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unclear whether individual differences of autism spectrum traits are associated with the strength of rs-FCs of DMN in participants including the general population.
Using the seed-based approach, we investigated the rs-FCs of DMN, particularly including the following two core regions of DMN: the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in 19 young male adults with high-functioning ASD (mean age = 25.3 ± 6.9 years; autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) = 33.4 ± 4.2; full scale IQ (F-IQ) = 109.7 ± 12.4) compared with 21 age- and IQ-matched young male adults from the TD group (mean age = 24.8 ± 4.3 years; AQ = 18.6 ± 5.7; F-IQ = 109.5 ± 8.7). We also analyzed the correlation between the strength of rs-FCs and autism spectrum traits measured using AQ score.
The strengths of rs-FCs from core regions of DMN were significantly lower in ASD participants than TD participants. Under multiple regression analysis, the strengths of rs-FCs in brain areas from aMPFC seed showed negative correlation with AQ scores in ASD participants and TD participants.
Our findings suggest that the strength of rs-FCs in DMN is associated with autism spectrum traits in the TD population as well as patients with ASD, supporting the continuum view. The rs-FCs of DMN may be useful biomarkers for the objective identification of autism spectrum traits, regardless of ASD diagnosis.
Authors’ original file for figure 113229_2014_128_MOESM1_ESM.png
Authors’ original file for figure 213229_2014_128_MOESM2_ESM.png
Authors’ original file for figure 313229_2014_128_MOESM3_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 413229_2014_128_MOESM4_ESM.png
Authors’ original file for figure 513229_2014_128_MOESM5_ESM.png
Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2008 Principal Investigators; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders -- Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 Sites, United States, 2008. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2012, 61: 1-19.
Frith U: Autism and Asperger Syndrome. 1991, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press CrossRef
Baron-Cohen S: Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind. 1997, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Skuse DH, Mandy W, Steer C, Miller LL, Goodman R, Lawrence K, Emond A, Golding J: Social communication competence and functional adaptation in a general population of children: preliminary evidence for sex-by-verbal IQ differential risk. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009, 48: 128-137. 10.1097/CHI.0b013e31819176b8. CrossRefPubMed
Ishitobi M, Kosaka H, Omori M, Matsumura Y, Munesue T, Mizukami K, Shimoyama T, Murata T, Sadato N, Okazawa H: Differential amygdala response to lower face in patients with autistic spectrum disorders: An fMRI study. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2011, 5: 910-919. 10.1016/j.rasd.2010.10.005. CrossRef
Association AP: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV-TR®. 2000, Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing
Wechsler D: WAIS-III: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. 1997, San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation
Chao-Gan Y, Yu-Feng Z: DPARSF: A MATLAB Toolbox for “Pipeline” Data Analysis of Resting-State fMRI. Front Syst Neurosci. 2010, 4: 1-7.
Satterthwaite TD, Elliott MA, Gerraty RT, Ruparel K, Loughead J, Calkins ME, Eickhoff SB, Hakonarson H, Gur RC, Gur RE, Wolf DH: An improved framework for confound regression and filtering for control of motion artifact in the preprocessing of resting-state functional connectivity data. Neuroimage. 2013, 64: 240-256. CrossRefPubMed
Satterthwaite TD, Wolf DH, Loughead J, Ruparel K, Elliott MA, Hakonarson H, Gur RC, Gur RE: Impact of in-scanner head motion on multiple measures of functional connectivity: relevance for studies of neurodevelopment in youth. Neuroimage. 2012, 60: 623-632. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.12.063. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
Buckner RL, Sepulcre J, Talukdar T, Krienen FM, Liu H, Hedden T, Andrews-Hanna JR, Sperling RA, Johnson KA: Cortical hubs revealed by intrinsic functional connectivity: mapping, assessment of stability, and relation to Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurosci. 2009, 29: 1860-1873. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5062-08.2009. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
- Default mode network in young male adults with autism spectrum disorder: relationship with autism spectrum traits
Daisuke N Saito
- BioMed Central
Neu in den Fachgebieten Neurologie und Psychiatrie
Meistgelesene Bücher in der Neurologie & Psychiatrie