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01.12.2012 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

BMC Health Services Research 1/2012

Demand for pneumococcal vaccination under subsidy program for the elderly in Japan

BMC Health Services Research > Ausgabe 1/2012
Masahide Kondo, Mariko Yamamura, Shu-Ling Hoshi, Ichiro Okubo
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1472-6963-12-313) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

Authors declare there is no conflict of interest.

Authors' contributions

MK, SH, and IO were involved in conception and design of this project, while MK and MY were involved with the implementation of the project and analysis and interpretation of the data. MK and MY have drafted the manuscripts while IO had provided critical comments. “All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”



Vaccination programs often organize subsidies and public relations in order to obtain high uptake rates and coverage. However, effects of subsidies and public relations have not been studied well in the literature. In this study, the demand function of pneumococcal vaccination among the elderly in Japan is estimated, incorporating effects of public relations and subsidy.


Using a data from a questionnaire survey sent to municipalities, the varying and constant elasticity models were applied to estimate the demand function. The response variable is the uptake rate. Explanatory variables are: subsidy supported shot price, operating years of the program, target population size for vaccination, shot location intensity, income and various public relations tools. The best model is selected by c-AIC, and varying and constant price elasticities are calculated from estimation results.


The vaccine uptake rate and the shot price have a negative relation. From the results of varying price elasticity, the demand for vaccination is elastic at municipalities with a shot price higher than 3,708 JPY (35.7 USD). Effects of public relations on the uptake rate are not found.


It can be suggested that municipalities with a shot price higher than 3,708 JPY (35.7 USD) could subsidize more and reduce price to increase the demand for vaccination. Effects of public relations are not confirmed in this study, probably due to measurement errors of variables used for public relations, and studies at micro level exploring individual’s response to public relations would be required.
Authors’ original file for figure 1
Authors’ original file for figure 2
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