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Erschienen in: Brain Structure and Function 7/2021

01.06.2021 | Review

Dendritic spine remodeling and plasticity under general anesthesia

verfasst von: Simon Granak, Cyril Hoschl, Saak V. Ovsepian

Erschienen in: Brain Structure and Function | Ausgabe 7/2021

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Abstract

Ever since its first use in surgery, general anesthesia has been regarded as a medical miracle enabling countless life-saving diagnostic and therapeutic interventions without pain sensation and traumatic memories. Despite several decades of research, there is a lack of understanding of how general anesthetics induce a reversible coma-like state. Emerging evidence suggests that even brief exposure to general anesthesia may have a lasting impact on mature and especially developing brains. Commonly used anesthetics have been shown to destabilize dendritic spines and induce an enhanced plasticity state, with effects on cognition, motor functions, mood, and social behavior. Herein, we review the effects of the most widely used general anesthetics on dendritic spine dynamics and discuss functional and molecular correlates with action mechanisms. We consider the impact of neurodevelopment, anatomical location of neurons, and their neurochemical profile on neuroplasticity induction, and review the putative signaling pathways. It emerges that in addition to possible adverse effects, the stimulation of synaptic remodeling with the formation of new connections by general anesthetics may present tremendous opportunities for translational research and neurorehabilitation.
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Metadaten
Titel
Dendritic spine remodeling and plasticity under general anesthesia
verfasst von
Simon Granak
Cyril Hoschl
Saak V. Ovsepian
Publikationsdatum
01.06.2021
Verlag
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Erschienen in
Brain Structure and Function / Ausgabe 7/2021
Print ISSN: 1863-2653
Elektronische ISSN: 1863-2661
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00429-021-02308-6