The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-018-2766-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Dental malocclusions in modern populations would be the result of small and weak jaws developing under low masticatory loads. We assess the validity of this by characterising the external and internal morphology of mandibles affected by class II and III malocclusions and comparing them with those from individuals with different masticatory load patterns.
CTs from up to 118 individuals exerting intensive, medium and low masticatory loads with harmonic occlusion, and from class II and III individuals, were used to compare their external shape using geometric morphometrics, as well as their internal amount and distribution of cortical bone.
The low-load groups (harmonic, class II and III occlusion) are externally more gracile than the intense and medium load groups. But more relevant in shape variation is a marked allometric pattern, which differentiates class II (small) and III (large) mandibles. Despite gracility, the relative amount of cortical bone in the low-load groups is larger than in the remaining groups.
There is no evidence that the modern mandible, including class II and III individuals, is intrinsically small and weak. Instead, there is a rather large degree of morphological variation, which could be linked to a lack of constraints derived from low masticatory loads. Thus, the effect of other factors such as genetics, but also basal metabolism, should be looked in more depth.
Dental malocclusions are a common disorder whose aetiology has not been unravelled, and several to be considered in the prevention and therapy of malocclusion.
ESM 1 (DOCX 16 kb)784_2018_2766_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Corruccini RS (1984) An epidemiologic transition in dental occlusion in world populations. Am J Orthod 86:419–426. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9416(84)90035-6 CrossRef
Marangoni A, Belli ML, Caramelli D, Moggi-Cecchi J, Zavattaro M, Manzi G (2011) Tierra del Fuego, its ancient inhabitants, and the collections of skeletal remains in the Museums of Anthropology of Florence and Rome. Museologia Scientifica 5:88–96
El-Zaatari S (2010) Occlusal microwear texture analysis and the diets of historical/prehistoric hunter-gatherers. Int J Osteoarchaeol 20:67–87. https://doi.org/10.1002/oa.1027
Larsen CS (2006) The agricultural revolution as environmental catastrophe: implications for health and lifestyle in the Holocene. Quatern Int 150:12–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2006.01.004 CrossRef
May H, Sella-Tunis T, Pokhojaev A, Peled N, Sarig R (2018) Changes in mandible characteristics during the terminal Pleistocene to Holocene Levant and their association with dietary habits. J Archaeol Sci Rep. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2018.03.020
Galland M, Van Gerven DP, Von Cramon-Taubadel N, Pinhasi R (2016) 11,000 years of craniofacial and mandibular variation in Lower Nubia. Sci Rep 6:31040 CrossRef
Pinhasi R, Eshed V, von Cramon-Taubadel N (2015) Incongruity between affinity patterns based on mandibular and lower dental dimensions following the transition to agriculture in the Near East, Anatolia and Europe. PLoS One 10:e0117301. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117301 CrossRef
Toro-Ibacache V, Cortés Araya J, Díaz Muñoz A, Manríquez Soto G (2014) Morphologic variability of nonsyndromic operated patients affected by cleft lip and palate: a geometric morphometric study. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 146:346–354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2014.06.002 CrossRef
Balanta-Melo J, Toro-Ibacache V, Torres-Quintana MA, Kupczik K, Vega C, Morales C, Hernández-Moya N, Arias-Calderón M, Beato C, Buvinic S (2018) Early molecular response and microanatomical changes in the masseter muscle and mandibular head after botulinum toxin intervention in adult mice. Ann Anat 216:112–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2017.11.009 CrossRef
Toro-Ibacache V, Zapata Muñoz V, O’Higgins P (2016) The relationship between skull morphology, masticatory muscle force and cranial skeletal deformation during biting. Ann Anat 203:59–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2015.03.002 CrossRef
Bishara SE (2006) Class II malocclusions: diagnostic and clinical considerations with and without treatment. Semin Orthod 12:11–24. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.sodo.2005.10.005 CrossRef
Joshi N, Hamdan AM, Fakhouri WD (2014) Skeletal malocclusion: a developmental disorder with a life-long morbidity. J Clin Med Res 6:399–408. https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr1905w
Creekmore TD (1967) Inhibition or stimulation of the vertical growth of the facial complex, its significance to treatment. Angle Orthod 37:285–297. https://doi.org/10.1043/0003-3219(1967)037<0285:iosotv>2.0.co;2
Díaz Muñoz A, Manríquez Soto G (2014) Skeletodental diagnosis using a geometric morphometric approach. Int J Odontostomatol 8:05–11. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-381X2014000100001 CrossRef
van Spronsen PH (2010) Long-face craniofacial morphology: cause or effect of weak masticatory musculature? Semin Orthod 16:99–117. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.sodo.2010.02.001 CrossRef
Korioth T, Hannam A (1994) Deformation of the human mandible during simulated tooth clenching. J Dent Res 73:56–66. https://doi.org/10.1177/00220345940730010801 CrossRef
van Eijden TM (2000) Biomechanics of the mandible. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 11:123–136. https://doi.org/10.1177/10454411000110010101 CrossRef
Antón SC, Carter-Menn H, DeLeon VB (2011) Modern human origins: continuity, replacement, and masticatory robusticity in Australasia. J Hum Evol 60:70–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2010.08.004 CrossRef
Perez SI, Lema V, Diniz-Filho José Alexandre F, Bernal V, Gonzalez Paula N, Gobbo D, Pucciarelli Héctor M (2011) The role of diet and temperature in shaping cranial diversification of South American human populations: an approach based on spatial regression and divergence rate tests. J Biogeogr 38:148–163. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02392.x CrossRef
Barak MM, Lieberman DE, Hublin J-J (2011) A Wolff in sheep’s clothing: trabecular bone adaptation in response to changes in joint loading orientation. Bone 49:1141–1151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2011.08.020 CrossRef
Zink KD, Lieberman DE, Lucas PW (2014) Food material properties and early hominin processing techniques. J Hum Evol 77:155–166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.06.012 CrossRef
Morales N, Toro-Ibacache V (2018) The transition to agriculture and industrialization changed the human face. Can vegetarianism be a new factor of change? Review of the literature. Int J Morphol 36:35–40 CrossRef
Agrawal KR, Lucas PW, Bruce IC, Prinz JF (1998) Food properties that influence neuromuscular activity during human mastication. J Dent Res 77:1931–1938. https://doi.org/10.1177/00220345980770111101 CrossRef
Buikstra JE and Ubelaker DH (1994) Standards for data collection from human skeletal remains: Proceedings of a seminar at the Field Museum of Natural History Arkansas Archeological Survey Research Series, Fayetteville
Toro Ibacache MV, Manriquez Soto G, Suazo Galdames I (2010) Morfometría geométrica y el estudio de las formas biológicas: de la morfología descriptiva a la morfología cuantitativa. Int J Morphol 28:977–990. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0717-95022010000400001 CrossRef
Alarcón JA, Bastir M, García-Espona I, Menéndez-Núñez M, Rosas A (2014) Morphological integration of mandible and cranium: orthodontic implications. Arch Oral Biol 59:22–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2013.10.005 CrossRef
Reno PL, Meindl RS, McCollum MA, Lovejoy CO (2003) Sexual dimorphism in Australopithecus afarensis was similar to that of modern humans. PNAS 100:9404–9409 CrossRef
Suazo Galdames IC, Zavando Matamala DA, Luiz Smith R (2008) Evaluating accuracy and precision in morphologic traits for sexual dimorphism in malnutrition human skull: a comparative study. Int J Morphol 26:876–883
Hammer Ø, Harper D and Ryan P (2001) PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron 4:9. doi: Not available
Anderson MJ (2001) A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecol 26:32–46. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.2001.01070.pp.x
Klingenberg CP (2011) MorphoJ: an integrated software package for geometric morphometrics. Mol Ecol Resour 11:353–357. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02924.x CrossRef
Sokal R, Rohlf F (1995) Biometry. WH Freeman and Company, New York
Rothhammer F, Lasserre E, Blanco R, Covarrubias E and Dixon M (1968) Microevolution in human Chilean populations: IV. Shovel shape, mesial-palatal version and other dental traits in Pewenche Indians. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie:162–169. doi: Not available
Helm JW, German RZ (1996) The epigenetic impact of weaning on craniofacial morphology during growth. J Exp Zool 276:243–253. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-010X(19961101)276:4<243::AID-JEZ1>3.0.CO;2-O CrossRef
- Dental malocclusions are not just about small and weak bones: assessing the morphology of the mandible with cross-section analysis and geometric morphometrics
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Clinical Oral Investigations
Print ISSN: 1432-6981
Elektronische ISSN: 1436-3771
Neu im Fachgebiet Zahnmedizin
Mail Icon II