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01.12.2016 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2016 Open Access

Respiratory Research 1/2016

Determinants and impact of suboptimal asthma control in Europe: The INTERNATIONAL CROSS-SECTIONAL AND LONGITUDINAL ASSESSMENT ON ASTHMA CONTROL (LIAISON) study

Respiratory Research > Ausgabe 1/2016
Fulvio Braido, Guy Brusselle, Daniele Guastalla, Eleonora Ingrassia, Gabriele Nicolini, David Price, Nicolas Roche, Joan B. Soriano, Heinrich Worth, on behalf of the LIAISON Study Group
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​s12931-016-0374-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The LIAISON study and the preparation of this manuscript were sponsored by Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A.
FB received reports personal fees from THERAMetrics S.p.A. (formerly Pierrel Research Italy SpA) during the conduct of the study; personal fees from AstraZeneca, Biofutura, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi Farmaceutici, Dompè, GlaxoSmithKline, Guidotti, Malesci Menarini, MSD, Mundipharma, Novartis, Takeda, Zambon outside the submitted work.
GB received fees for advisory boards and lectures from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi Farmaceutici, GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis.
DG, EI and GN are employees of Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A.
DP has Board Membership with Aerocrine, Almirall, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi Farmaceutici, Meda, Mundipharma, Napp, Novartis, and Teva. Consultancy: Almirall, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi Farmaceutici, GlaxoSmithKline, Meda, Mundipharma, Napp, Novartis, Pfizer, and Teva; Grants and unrestricted funding for investigator-initiated studies from UK National Health Service, British Lung Foundation, Aerocrine, AKL Ltd, Almirall, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi Farmaceutici, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Meda, Merck, Mundipharma, Napp, Novartis, Orion, Pfizer, Respiratory Effectiveness Group, Takeda, Teva, and Zentiva; Payments for lectures/speaking: Almirall, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi Farmaceutici, Cipla, GlaxoSmithKline, Kyorin, Meda, Merck, Mundipharma, Novartis, Pfizer, SkyePharma, Takeda and Teva; Payment for manuscript preparation: Mundipharma and Teva; Patents (planned, pending or issued): AKL Ltd.; Payment for the development of educational materials: GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis; Stock/Stock options: Shares in AKL Ltd which produces phytopharmaceuticals and owns 80 % of Research in Real Life Ltd and its subsidiary social enterprise Optimum Patient Care; received Payment for travel/accommodations/meeting expenses from Aerocrine, Boehringer Ingelheim, Mundipharma, Napp, Novartis, and Teva; Funding for patient enrolment or completion of research: Almirral, Chiesi Farmaceutici, Teva, and Zentiva; and Peer reviewer for grant committees: Medical Research Council (2014), Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation programme (2012), HTA (2014).
JS received consulting fee/honorarium from Chiesi Farmaceutici
NR has received over the past 3 years (i) fees for speaking, organising education, participation in advisory boards or consulting from Aerocrine, Almirall, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi Farmaceutici, Cipla, GlaxoSmithKline, MSD-Chibret, Mundipharma, Novartis, Pfizer, Stallergenes, Takeda, Teva; (ii) research grants from Novartis, Boehringer Ingelheim and Pfizer.
HW received personal fees from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi Farmaceutici, GlaxoSmithKline, Klosterfrau, Menarini, Novartis, Takeda.

Authors’ contributions

All authors contributed to the study conception and design and were responsible for the drafting, review and final approval of the manuscript.



According to the Global Initiative of Asthma, the aim of asthma treatment is to gain and maintain control. In the INTERNATIONAL CROSS-SECTIONAL AND LONGITUDINAL ASSESSMENT ON ASTHMA CONTROL (LIAISON) study, we evaluated the level of asthma control and quality of life (QoL), as well as their determinants and impact in a population consulting specialist settings.


LIAISON is a prospective, multicentre, observational study with a cross-sectional and a 12-month longitudinal phase. Adults with an asthma diagnosis since at least 6 months, receiving the same asthma treatment in the 4 weeks before enrolment were included. Asthma control was assessed with the 6-item Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) and QoL with the MiniAsthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniAQLQ).


Overall, 8111 asthmatic patients were enrolled in 12 European countries. Asthma control was suboptimal in 56.5 % of patients and it was associated with poorer asthma-related QoL, higher risk of exacerbations and greater consumption of healthcare resources.
Variables associated with suboptimal control were age, gender, obesity, smoking and comorbidities. Major determinants of poor asthma control were seasonal worsening and persisting exposure to allergens/irritants/triggers, followed by treatment-related issues.


The cross-sectional phase results confirm that suboptimal control is frequent and has a high individual and economic impact.

Trial registration

The identifier is NCT01567280.
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