Dexmedetomidine has been shown to confer direct renoprotection by stabilizing the sympathetic system, exerting anti-inflammatory effects and attenuating ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in preclinical studies. Results from clinical trials of dexmedetomidine on acute kidney injury (AKI) following adult cardiac surgery are controversial.
We searched EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the renal effect of dexmedetomidine versus placebo or other anesthetic drugs in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The primary outcome was the incidence of AKI. The secondary outcomes were mechanical ventilation (MV) duration, intensive care unit (ICU) stay and hospital length of stay(LOS), and postoperative mortality (in-hospital or within 30 days).
Ten trials with a total of 1575 study patients were selected. Compared with controls, dexmedetomidine significantly reduced the incidence of postoperative AKI [68/788 vs 97/787; odds ratio(OR), 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45–0.92; P = 0.02; I2 = 0.0%], and there was no difference between groups in postoperative mortality (4/487 vs 11/483; OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.14–1.28; P = 0.13; I2 = 0.0%), MV duration [in days; n = 1229; weighted mean difference(WMD), −0.22; 95% CI, −2.04 to 1.70; P = 0.81], ICU stay (in days; n = 1363; WMD, −0.85; 95% CI, −2.14 to 0.45; P = 0.20), and hospital LOS (in days; n = 878; WMD, −0.24; 95% CI, −0.71 to 0.23; P = 0.32).
Perioperative administration of dexmedetomidine in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery may reduce the incidence of postoperative AKI. Future trials are needed to determine the dose and timing of dexmedetomidine in improving outcomes, especially in patients with decreased baseline kidney function.
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- Dexmedetomidine prevents acute kidney injury after adult cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
- BioMed Central
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