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11.10.2019 | Original Paper

Dietary Quality Varies Among Adults on the Flathead Nation of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes in Montana

Zeitschrift:
Journal of Community Health
Autoren:
Carmen Byker Shanks, Selena Ahmed, Virgil Dupuis, Mike Tryon, MaryAnn Running Crane, Bailey Houghtaling, Teresa Garvin
Wichtige Hinweise

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Abstract

Diet-related chronic disease is among the most pressing public health issues and represents a health disparity among Native American communities. A community-based participatory approach was taken to evaluate dietary quality of adult residents of the Flathead Reservation of the Confederated Salish & Kootenai Tribes in Montana (the Flathead Nation). A survey was administered to collect basic demographic information and food security status (N = 80). Dietary quality was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method with subsequent calculation of Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) scores, modified HEI without a dairy category, and the Dietary Diversity Scores (DDS). Participants included 80 adults from different households across eight communities (n = 10 per community) at the Flathead Nation. Approximately 50% of participants reported low or very low food security status while the remainder scored high or marginal food security. The mean total HEI-2010 score of study participants was 45.5 out of 100 points with a range between 20.0 and 78.1. The mean DDS of study participants was 4.6 (± 1.365) out of a total of 9 points. Participants with higher DDS had significantly higher intake of dietary fiber (p < 0.0003), potassium (0.0024), and cholesterol (p < 0.0048) compared to the lower DDS group. No significant correlations were found between HEI-2010 scores with DDS, demographic information, or food security status while significant differences were found between food security status and income (p < 0.01) and enrollment in nutrition assistance programs (p < 0.03). This study highlights the need to evaluate multiple parameters of dietary quality coupled with a community-based participatory approach in order for findings to be culturally relevant and support food and nutrition interventions.

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