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11.10.2019 | Original Paper

Dietary Quality Varies Among Adults on the Flathead Nation of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes in Montana

Journal of Community Health
Carmen Byker Shanks, Selena Ahmed, Virgil Dupuis, Mike Tryon, MaryAnn Running Crane, Bailey Houghtaling, Teresa Garvin
Wichtige Hinweise

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Diet-related chronic disease is among the most pressing public health issues and represents a health disparity among Native American communities. A community-based participatory approach was taken to evaluate dietary quality of adult residents of the Flathead Reservation of the Confederated Salish & Kootenai Tribes in Montana (the Flathead Nation). A survey was administered to collect basic demographic information and food security status (N = 80). Dietary quality was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method with subsequent calculation of Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) scores, modified HEI without a dairy category, and the Dietary Diversity Scores (DDS). Participants included 80 adults from different households across eight communities (n = 10 per community) at the Flathead Nation. Approximately 50% of participants reported low or very low food security status while the remainder scored high or marginal food security. The mean total HEI-2010 score of study participants was 45.5 out of 100 points with a range between 20.0 and 78.1. The mean DDS of study participants was 4.6 (± 1.365) out of a total of 9 points. Participants with higher DDS had significantly higher intake of dietary fiber (p < 0.0003), potassium (0.0024), and cholesterol (p < 0.0048) compared to the lower DDS group. No significant correlations were found between HEI-2010 scores with DDS, demographic information, or food security status while significant differences were found between food security status and income (p < 0.01) and enrollment in nutrition assistance programs (p < 0.03). This study highlights the need to evaluate multiple parameters of dietary quality coupled with a community-based participatory approach in order for findings to be culturally relevant and support food and nutrition interventions.

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