All authors declare that they have no competing interests in relation to this study.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript. MK, MGR and MGH conducted the data analysis and prepared the manuscript; they also contributed to the design of the manuscript. MAS and SA assisted with the data analysis and reviewed the manuscript.
Anemia is one of the most common public health problems globally, and high prevalence has been reported among women of reproductive age, especially in developing countries. This study was conducted to evaluate differentials in the prevalence of anemia among non-pregnant, ever-married women of reproductive age in Bangladesh, and to examine associations with demographic, socioeconomic, and nutritional factors.
Data for this cross-sectional study were taken from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). In a sub-sample of one-third of the households, all ever-married women of reproductive age (15 to 49 years) were selected for the biomarker component of the survey, including anemia. The sample size for our study was 5,293. Data were analyzed using multilevel logistic regression analysis.
The prevalence of anemia among non-pregnant, ever-married women was 41.3 % (urban: 37.2 % and rural: 43.5 %). Among anemic women, 35.5 % had mild anemia, 5.6 % had moderate anemia, and 0.2 % had severe anemia. Women with no education were more likely to be anemic than those with secondary education (p < 0.01) or higher education (p < 0.01). Undernourished women (BMI < 18.5) were at greater risk of anemia (p < 0.01) compared with normal women, overweight women, and obese women. Anemia was less pronounced among non-pregnant women using contraception (p < 0.05), Muslim women (p < 0.01), and women living in rich households (p < 0.01).
The prevalence of anemia among non-pregnant, ever-married women in Bangladesh is high. Illiteracy, poverty, and undernutrition are contributing factors.
Benoist BD, McLean E, Egli I, Cogswell M, editors. Worldwide prevalence of anemia 1993–2005: WHO Global Database on Anemia. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2008.
Scholl TO, Hediger ML, Fischer RL, Shearer JW. Anemia vs iron deficiency: increased risk of preterm delivery in a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:985–8. PubMed
Rasmussen K. Is there a causal relationship between iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia and weight at birth, length of gestation and perinatal mortality? J Nutr. 2001;131(2S-2):590S–601S. PubMed
Mulayim B, Celik NY, Yanik FF. Helicobacter pylori infection detected by 14C-urea breath test is associated with iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2008;34:980–5. PubMed
Brabin BJ, Hakimi M, Pelletier D. An analysis of anemia and pregnancy-related maternal mortality. J Nutr. 2001;131(2S-2):604S–14S. PubMed
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Recommendations to prevent and control iron deficiency in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1998;47(RR-3):1–29.
US Department of Health, Education and Welfare. The Nutrition Survey of East Pakistan. Dhaka: US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, and Department of Biochemistry, Dhaka University; 1966.
Helen Keller International/ Institute of Public Health Nutrition. Iron deficiency anemia throughout the life cycle in rural Bangladesh. Dhaka: Helen Keller International/ Institute of Public Health Nutrition; 1999.
Helen Keller International/ Institute of Public Health Nutrition. Anemia is a serious public health problem in pre-school children and pregnant women in rural Bangladesh. NSP Bull. 10(March). 2002.
National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT), Mitra and Associates, ICF International. Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. NIPORT, Mitra & Associates and ICF International, Dhaka, Bangladesh and Calverton, MD, USA. 2013.
Dunn OJ, Clark VA. Applied statistics: analysis of variance and regression. Toronto: John Wiley & Sons; 1974.
Khan MHR, Shaw JEH. Multilevel logistic regression analysis applied to binary contraceptive prevalence data. J Data Sci. 2011;9:93–110.
Chan YH. Biostatistics 202: logistic regression analysis. Singapore Med J. 2004;45:149–53. PubMed
Bari MA, Sutradhar SR, Sarker CN, Ahmed S, Miah AH, Alam MK, et al. Assessment of anaemia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Mymensingh Med J. 2013;22:248–54. PubMed
Liao QK. Prevalence of iron deficiency in pregnant and premenopausal women in China: a nationwide epidemiological survey. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2004;25:653–7. PubMed
Sadeghian M, Fatourechi A, Lesanpezeshki M, Ahmadnezhad E. Prevalence of anemia and correlated factors in the reproductive age women in rural areas of Tabas. J Fam Reprod Health. 2013;7:139–44.
Smagulova IE, Sharmanov TS, Balgimekov SA. The prevalence of anemia among children and women of reproductive age in Kazakhstan and basis of its prevention. Vopr Pitan. 2013;82:58–63. PubMed
Shamah-Levy T, Villalpando-Hernández S, García-Guerra A, Mundo-Rosas V, Mejía-Rodríguez F, Domínguez-Islas CP. Anemia in Mexican women: results of two national probabilistic surveys. Salud Publica Mex. 2009;51 Suppl 4:S515–22. PubMed
Pala K, Dundar N. Prevalence & risk factors of anaemia among women of reproductive age in Bursa, Turkey. Indian J Med Res. 2008;128:282–6. PubMed
Stevens GA, Finucane MM, De-Regil LM, Paciorek CJ, Flaxman SR, Branca F, et al. Global, regional, and national trends in haemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anaemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for 1995–2011: a systematic analysis of population-representative data. Lancet Glob Health. 2013;1:e16–25. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Massawe SN, Urassa EN, Nyström L, Lindmark G. Anaemia in women of reproductive age in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. East Afr Med J. 2002;79:461–6. PubMed
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning. Population & housing census: preliminary results, 2011. Dhaka, Bangladesh: BBS; 2011.
- Differentials in the prevalence of anemia among non-pregnant, ever-married women in Bangladesh: multilevel logistic regression analysis of data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey
Md. Golam Rabbani
Md. Abu Sayem
Md. Golam Hossain
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe
Meistgelesene Bücher aus dem Fachgebiet
e.Med Kampagnen-Visual, Mail Icon II