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01.06.2014 | Ausgabe 3/2014

Abdominal Radiology 3/2014

Differentiation of early perforated from nonperforated appendicitis: MDCT findings, MDCT diagnostic performance, and clinical outcome

Zeitschrift:
Abdominal Radiology > Ausgabe 3/2014
Autoren:
Mi Sung Kim, Hae Won Park, Ji Yeon Park, Hee-Jin Park, So-Yeon Lee, Hyun Pyo Hong, Hyon Joo Kwag, Heon-Ju Kwon

Abstract

To determine the CT findings and assess their diagnostic performance in differentiating early perforated appendicitis from nonperforated appendicitis, and to compare therapeutic approaches and clinical outcomes between two types of appendicitis. Our retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board and informed consent was waived. From July 2012 to July 2013, 339 patients [mean age 40.8 years; age range 19–80 years; 183 male (mean age 40.5 years; age range 19–79 years) and 156 female (mean age 41.2 years; age range 19–80 years)] who underwent appendectomy with preoperative CT examination for suspected acute appendicitis were included, with exclusion of 37 patients with specific CT findings for advanced perforated appendicitis. And they were categorized into nonperforated and early perforated appendicitis groups according to surgical and pathologic reports. The following CT findings were evaluated by two radiologists blinded to pathologic and surgical findings: transverse diameter of the appendix, thickness of the appendiceal wall, the depth of intraluminal appendiceal fluid, appendiceal wall enhancement, presence or absence of focal defect in the appendiceal wall, intraluminal appendiceal air, appendicolith/fecalith, periappendiceal changes, cecal wall thickening, and free fluid. The type of surgical procedures, performance of surgical drainage, and the length of hospital stay were recorded. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to determine the CT findings for differentiating early perforated appendicitis from nonperforated appendicitis, a total of 75 (22%) of the 339 patients was diagnosed with early perforated appendicitis. Focal wall defect [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 23.40; p < 0.001], circumferential periappendiceal changes (aOR, 5.63; p < 0.001), appendicoliths/fecaliths (aOR, 2.47; p = 0.015), and transverse diameter of the appendix (aOR, 1.22; p = 0.003) were independently differentiating variables for early perforated appendicitis. The transverse diameter of the appendix (≥11 mm) had the highest sensitivity (62.7%) and focal wall defect in the appendiceal wall showed the highest specificity (98.8%). The prevalence of surgical drainage was higher (p = 0.001) and the mean hospital stay was approximately one day longer (p < 0.001) in the early perforated group than nonperforated group. CT can be helpful in differentiating early perforated appendicitis from nonperforated appendicitis, although the sensitivity of the evaluated findings was somewhat limited.

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