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01.12.2018 | Case report | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

Journal of Medical Case Reports 1/2018

Distinctive vasculopathy with systemic involvement due to levamisole long-term therapy: a case report

Journal of Medical Case Reports > Ausgabe 1/2018
Bilal Aoun, Mohammad Alali, Jad A. Degheili, Sami Sanjad, Claudine Vaquin, Jean Donadieu, Tim Ulinski, Salah Termos



Levamisole belongs to the antihelminthic class of drugs that are sometimes administered to patients with frequently relapsing or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome, owing to its steroid-sparing effects. Neutropenia and skin lesions, compatible with vasculitis, have been reported as drug complications, but they are rarely associated with any systemic involvement.

Case presentation

We report a case of a 9-year-old Arab boy with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome who was treated with levamisole after his third relapse. The drug was initially well tolerated, but mild isolated neutropenia occurred 6 months after levamisole administration. This was followed by cutaneous vasculitis of both ears and the left cheek. The patient also developed hepatosplenomegaly and anemia. Levamisole was discontinued, and his disease remained in remission. All the systemic manifestations disappeared gradually over the course of 1 month. The patient remained in remission until 1 year after levamisole withdrawal, when clinical nephrosis recurred.


Despite levamisole’s being a useful drug for maintaining remission in steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome, patients on long-term levamisole therapy should be monitored closely to prevent serious complications that can easily be resolved by simple drug withdrawal.

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