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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Public Health 1/2015

Does the impact of metabolic syndrome on cardiovascular events vary by using different definitions?

BMC Public Health > Ausgabe 1/2015
Hossein Khosravi-Boroujeni, Faruk Ahmed, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Hamidreza Roohafza, Mohammad Talaei, Minoo Dianatkhah, Ali Pourmogaddas, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

HK designed the concept of the study and prepared the draft manuscript. MS, HR and MT effectively worked for the data collection. HK and MD statistically analyzed the data. FA AP and NS provided guidance on the study design and critically reviewed the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder which increases the risk of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. As a result of modern lifestyles, the prevalence of MetS has been rising globally. This study aims to investigate whether overall prevalence of MetS varies when using different definitions of MetS and to identify the best and most predictive definition of the MetS for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events over 10 years in a cohort of an Iranian population.


Adults aged ≥ 35 years from urban and rural regions in central Iran were selected at baseline and followed up for more than 10 years. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometry, blood pressure and smoking status were collected at baseline. In addition, various biochemical indices were assessed. MetS was defined based on five available definitions, and cardiovascular events during 10 years follow up were confirmed by an expert group. The hazard ratios were calculated by the Cox proportional hazards model.


The highest prevalence of MetS was observed by using AHA-NHBI definition (36.9 %), followed by JIS definition (31.2 %). On the other hand, EGIR (8.8 %) provided the lowest prevalence. The risk of developing CVD, irrespective of definitions, was approximately two fold higher in the presence of MetS. After controlling for possible confounders, AHA-NHBI definition was found to be the best predictor of CVD.


This study demonstrated a great variability in the prevalence of MetS among Iranian adults when using different definitions of MetS. CVD risk was significantly higher in MetS participants, as well as in participants with any risk factors of MetS; however, the AHA-NHBI definition was found to be the best predictor of CVD. Thus protective measures, including lifestyle modifications, plus control of individual risk factors is necessary to prevent cardiovascular events.
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