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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Public Health 1/2015

Does the timing of parental migration matter for child growth? A life course study on left-behind children in rural China

BMC Public Health > Ausgabe 1/2015
Nan Zhang, Laia Bécares, Tarani Chandola
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

NZ analysed the data, drafted and revised the paper. TC contributed to the conceptualization of the idea, interpreted the data, revised the paper, and supervised NZ. LB interpreted the results, reviewed drafts of the paper, and supervised NZ. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Authors’ information

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China’s unprecedented internal migration has left 61 million rural children living apart from parents. This study investigates how being left behind is associated with children’s growth, by examining children’s height and weight trajectories by age, testing the accumulation and critical period life course hypotheses.


Data were drawn from five waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Multiple cohorts of children under 6 years old from 1997–2009 were examined (N = 2,555). Growth curve models investigated whether height and weight trajectories differ for children who were left behind at different stages of the life course: in early childhood (from ages 0–5 but not afterwards), in later childhood (from ages 6 to 17 only), and in both early and later childhood (from ages 0–5 and from ages 6–17), compared to their peers from intact households.


Boys who were left behind at different life stages of childhood differed in height and weight growth compared with boys from intact families. No significant associations were found for girls. As young boys turned into adolescents, those left behind in early childhood tended to have slower height growth and weight gain than their peers from intact households. There was a 2.8 cm difference in the predicted heights of boys who were left behind in early childhood compared to boys from intact households, by the age of 14. Similarly, the difference in weight between the two groups of boys was 5.3 kg by the age of 14.


Being left behind during early childhood, as compared to not being left behind, could lead to slower growth rates of height and weight for boys. The life course approach adopted in this study suggests that early childhood is a critical period of children’s growth in later life, especially for boys who are left behind. The gender paradox in China, where sons are preferred, but being left behind appears to affect boys more than girls, needs further exploration.
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