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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Urology 1/2015

Does visualisation during urethrocystoscopy provide pain relief? Results of an observational study

BMC Urology > Ausgabe 1/2015
J. Koenig, S. Sevinc, C. Frohme, H. Heers, R. Hofmann, A. Hegele
Wichtige Hinweise
J. Koenig and A. Hegele contributed equally to this work.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

JK Data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing, SS Data collection, manuscript editing, CF data collection, manuscript editing, HH Data collection, manuscript editing, RH Data collection, Manuscript editing, AH Project development, data collection, data analysis, manuscript writing



To measure the effects of real-time visualisation during urethrocystoscopy on pain in patients who underwent ambulatory urethrocystoscopy.


An observational study was designed. From June 2012 to June 2013 patients who had ambulatory urethrocystoscopy participated in the study. In order to measure pain perception we used a numeric rating scale (NRS) 0 to 10. Additional data was collected including gender, reason for intervention, use of a rigid or a flexible instrument and whether the patient had had urethrocystoscopy before.


185 patients were evaluated. 125 patients preferred to watch their urethrocystoscopy on a real-time video screen, 60 patients did not. There was no statistically relevant difference in pain perception between those patients who watched their urethrocystoscopy on a real-time video screen and those who did not (p = 0.063). However, men who were allowed to watch their flexible urethrocystoscopy experienced significantly less pain, than those who did not (p = 0.007). No such effects could be measured for rigid urethrocystoscopy (p = 0.317). Furthermore, women experienced significantly higher levels of pain during the urethrocystoscopy than men (p = 0.032).


Visualisation during urethrocystoscopy procedures in general does not significantly decrease pain in patients. Nevertheless, men who undergo flexible urethrocystoscopy should be offered to watch their procedure in real-time on a video screen. To make urethrocystoscopy less painful for both genders, especially for women, should be subject to further research.
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