Coughing is an essential airway protective reflex. In healthy young adults, cough somatosensation changes when attention is divided (dual tasking). Whether the same is true in populations at risk of aspiration remains unknown. We present findings from a controlled study testing the effects of divided attention (via a dual-task paradigm) on measures of reflex cough in Parkinson’s disease. Volunteers with Parkinson’s disease (n = 14, age = 43–79 years) and 14 age-matched controls underwent five blocks of capsaicin-induced cough challenges. Within each block, capsaicin ranging from 0 to 200 μM was presented in a randomized order. Two blocks consisted of cough testing only (single task), and two blocks consisted of cough testing with simultaneous tone counting (dual task). Finally, participants completed a suppressed cough task. Measures of cough motor response, self-reported urge to cough, cough frequency, and cough airflow were collected. Historical data from healthy young adults was included for comparison. Between-group analyses revealed no differences between single- and dual-cough-task responses. However, post hoc analysis revealed a significant relationship between dual-task errors and cough frequency that was strongest in people with Parkinson’s disease [p = 0.004, r2 = 0.52]. Specifically, greater errors were associated with fewer reflexive coughs. Unlike healthy participants, participants with Parkinson’s disease did not change the number of coughs between the single-, dual-, and suppressed-task conditions [p > 0.05]. When distracted, people with Parkinson’s disease may prioritize coughing differently than healthy controls. Abnormal cortical resource allocation may be a mechanism involved in aspiration in this population.