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29.10.2015 | Original Paper | Ausgabe 4/2016

International Ophthalmology 4/2016

Dyslipidemia and its association with meibomian gland dysfunction

International Ophthalmology > Ausgabe 4/2016
Puneet S. Braich, Mary K. Howard, Jorawer S. Singh


Abnormal serum lipid levels significantly increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, abnormal compositions of cholesterol in glandular secretions have been hypothesized as an etiology for meibomian gland dysfunction, yet this relationship has not been well studied in clinical settings. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if there is an association between dyslipidemia and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). The secondary purpose was to identify the factors, if any, that play a role in this association. A case–control study was performed between October 2013 and February 2015 which recruited 109 patients with MGD and 115 control patients without MGD. All participants were of Indian descent and had no history of dyslipidemia. Basic demographic information was collected as well as fasting levels of serum glucose, creatinine, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). To calculate differences between groups, Z test or Student t test were used. A stepwise logistic regression model was used to calculate the estimates of odds ratios (ORs), where MGD was the dependent variable, making the independent variables consist of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL, LDL ≥130 mg/dL, or HDL ≤40 mg/dL, serum glucose, and serum creatinine. Dyslipidemia, defined by either a fasting total cholesterol level of ≥ 200 mg/dL, triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, LDL ≥130 mg/dL, or HDL ≤40 mg/dL, was detected in 70 cases (64 %) and 21 controls (18 %), P < 0.001. Mean levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL were 98.5 ± 42.1, 203.1 ± 13.2, 126.1 ± 10.2, and 53.3 ± 4.2 mg/dL, respectively, in cases and 82.3 ± 36.5, 156.6 ± 14.5, 92.2 ± 12.4, 45.8 ± 2.6 mg/dL, respectively, in controls. All differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). MGD was significantly associated with age >65 years (OR 2.1; 95 % CI 1.2–3.2, P = 0.04), serum triglyceride concentration ≥150 mg/dL (OR 3.2; 95 % CI 1.9–4.4; P = 0.03), total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL (OR 14.3; 95 % CI 8.2–20.7, P < 0.01), and LDL ≥130 mg/dL (OR 9.1; 95 % CI 6.6–13.2, P < 0.01). Adults from northern rural India with MGD are more likely to have abnormal serum lipid levels compared to age- and sex-matched adults without MGD. Eye care providers may have a role in discovering undiagnosed dyslipidemia, an important risk factor for cardiovascular illness.

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