The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1639-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
To investigate whether early introduction of complementary foods (CF) is associated with an increased risk of overweight during childhood, and whether this association differs between formula-fed and breastfed infants.
We included 2611 participants that were born at term from a Dutch population-based birth cohort (n = 3963) designed to investigate the development of asthma and allergies. Parents kept records of their infant’s age when CF were first introduced. Weight and height were parent reported yearly from age 1 to 8 years, and at ages 11, 14 and 17 years. We used multivariate generalized estimating equations analysis to investigate the association between timing of CF introduction (before 4 months vs at or after 4 months of age) and overweight at ages 1–17 years.
Children with CF introduction before 4 months had higher odds of being overweight during childhood than children with CF introduction at or after 4 months (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.19, 1.47). This association was observed in formula-fed infants (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.17, 1.94) and breastfed infants (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.19, 1.47). The duration of breastfeeding modified the association between CF introduction and overweight: children breastfed for shorter than 4 months, but not children breastfed for 4 months or longer with CF introduction before 4 months had higher odds of being overweight (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.19, 1.57 and 1.07, 95% CI 0.87, 1.32, respectively), compared to those with CF introduction at or after 4 months.
In children born at term, formula-fed infants and infants who were breastfed for shorter than 4 months, but not infants who were breastfed for 4 months or longer, had a higher risk of being overweight during childhood when being introduced to CF before 4 months of age.
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 17 KB)394_2018_1639_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Nederlands Centrum Jeugdgezondheid. Richtlijn: voeding en eetgedrag (2013, aanpassing 2017). Retrieved from: https://www.ncj.nl/richtlijnen/alle-richtlijnen/richtlijn/?richtlijn=4&rlpag=526
Snijders BE, Thijs C, van Ree R, van den Brandt PA (2008) Age at first introduction of cow milk products and other food products in relation to infant atopic manifestations in the first 2 years of life: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Pediatrics 122(1):e115-e122 CrossRef
Brunekreef B, Smit J, de Jongste J, Neijens H, Gerritsen J, Postma D et al (2002) The prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study: design and first results. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 13 Suppl 15:55–60 CrossRef
Euser AM, de Wit CC, Finken MJ, Rijken M, Wit JM et al (2008) Growth of preterm born children. Horm Res 70:319–328 PubMed
Bekkers MB, Brunekreef B, Scholtens S, Kerkhof M, Smit HA, Wijga AH (2011) Parental reported compared with measured waist circumference in 8-year-old children. Int J Pediatr Obes 6:e78-e86 CrossRef
Pearce J, Taylor MA, Langley-Evans SC (2013) Timing of the introduction of complementary feeding and risk of childhood obesity: a systematic review. Int J Obes 37:1295–1306 CrossRef
Birch LL, Fisher JO (1998) Development of eating behaviors among children and adolescents. Pediatrics 101:539–549 PubMed
Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Peerson JM, Lonnerdal B, Dewey KG (1993) Intake and growth of breast-fed and formula-fed infants in relation to the timing of introduction of complementary foods: the DARLING study. Davis area research on lactation, infant nutrition and growth. Acta Paediatr 82:999–1006 CrossRefPubMed
Ong KK, Emmett PM, Noble S, Ness A, Dunger DB (2006) Dietary energy intake at the age of 4 months predicts postnatal weight gain and childhood body mass index. Pediatrics 117:e503-e508 CrossRef
Volksgezondheidenzorg.info (2017): https://www.volksgezondheidenzorg.info/onderwerp/overgewicht/cijfers-context/trends#node-trend-overgewicht-kinderen, RIVM: Bilthoven. Accessed 2 Oct 2017
Inspectie voor de Gezondheidszorg en Voedingscentrum (1999). Voeding van zuigelingen en peuters. Uitgangspunten voor de voedingsadvisering voor kinderen van 0–4 jaar. Voedingscentrum: Den Haag
Lanting CI, Van Wouwe JP (2007) Peiling melkvoeding van zuigelingen 2007. TNO, Leiden
Peeters D, Lanting CI, Van Wouwe JP (2015) Peiling melkvoeding van zuigelingen 2015. TNO, Leiden
Van Den Berg G, Van Eijsden M, Galindo-Garre F, Vrijkotte T, Gemke R (2013) Low maternal education is associated with increased growth velocity in the first year of life and in early childhood: the ABCD study. Eur J pediatr 172(11):1451–1457 CrossRef
- Early introduction of complementary foods and childhood overweight in breastfed and formula-fed infants in the Netherlands: the PIAMA birth cohort study
Linda P. M. Pluymen
Alet H. Wijga
Gerard H. Koppelman
Henriëtte A. Smit
L. van Rossem
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg