The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-145) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All authors designed the study. BR, SR, and TN conducted the study. BR and TN, analyzed, interpreted the data, and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors took part of the final version of the manuscript.
Patients with type 1 diabetes have a substantial risk of developing cardiovascular complications early in life. We aimed to explore the role of insulin sensitivity (Si) as an early factor of atherosclerosis in young type 1 diabetes vs. non-diabetic subjects.
Forty adolescent and young adult individuals (20 type 1 diabetics and 20 non-diabetics), age 14–20 years, without characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, participated in this cross-sectional study. After an overnight fast, Si was measured by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (40 mU/m2) and calculated by glucose infusion rate (GIR). Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) was measured in the common carotid artery with high-resolution ultrasonography. Risk factors of atherosclerosis (Body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, systolic blood pressure [sBP], triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol and HbA1c) were also investigated.
cIMT was increased (0.52 ± 0.1 vs. 0.47 ± 0.1 mm, P < 0.01), whereas GIR was decreased (5.0 ± 2.1 vs. 7.1 ± 2.2 mg/kg/min, P < 0.01) in type 1 diabetics vs. non-diabetics. The differences in cIMT were negatively associated with Si (r = −0.4, P < 0.01) and positively associated with waist circumference (r = 0.34, P = 0.03), with no such associations between BMI (r = 0.15, P = 0.32), sBP (r = 0.09, P = 0.58), triglycerides (r = 0.07, P = 0.66), HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.10, P = 0.55) and HbA1c (r = 0.24, P = 0.13). In a multivariate regression model, between cIMT (dependent) and group (explanatory), only adjustment for Si affected the significance (ß = 0.08, P = 0.11) vs. (ß = 0.07, P < 0.01) for the whole model. No interaction between cIMT, groups and Si was observed.
cIMT is increased and associated with insulin resistance in adolescent, non-obese type 1 diabetic subjects. Although, no conclusions toward a causal relationship can be drawn from current findings, insulin resistance emerges as an important factor reflecting early signs of atherosclerosis in this small cohort.
Authors’ original file for figure 112933_2012_576_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
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- Early signs of atherosclerosis are associated with insulin resistance in non-obese adolescent and young adults with type 1 diabetes
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