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18.12.2017 | Original Article | Ausgabe 3/2018 Open Access

Annals of Hematology 3/2018

Early tapering of immunosuppressive agents after HLA-matched donor transplantation can improve the survival of patients with advanced acute myeloid leukemia

Zeitschrift:
Annals of Hematology > Ausgabe 3/2018
Autoren:
Jun Yang, Yu Cai, JieLing Jiang, LiPing Wan, HaiTao Bai, Jun Zhu, Su li, Chun Wang, Xianmin Song

Abstract

Disease recurrence is the most important obstacle to achieve long-term survival for patients with advanced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). In order to reduce the relapse risk and improve the survival, the strategy of early tapering of immunosuppressive agents was prospectively evaluated. Thirty-one patients with advanced AML received early tapering of immunosuppressive drugs, while 32 patients with AML in complete remission (CR) were given the routine tapering of immunosuppressive agents after HLA-matched donor transplantation. All advanced AML patients achieved CR after allo-HSCT. At 24 months after transplantation, relapse incidences were 22% in advanced group and 16% in CR group (P = 0.553); disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 57.7 and 57.8% in advanced group, while in CR group were 66.6% (P = 0.388) and 66.2% (P = 0.423); immunosuppressive agent-free DFS (IDFS) were similar between two groups (P = 0.407). Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) incidences were similar between two groups (P = 0.311). Chronic GvHD (cGvHD) incidence was much higher in advanced group than in CR group (70.4 vs 38.7%, P = 0.02), but severe cGvHD had no difference. In multivariate analysis, cGvHD was an independent prognostic factor for lower risk of relapse and better DFS and OS; early tapering of immunosuppressive agents was an independent prognostic factor for cGvHD. The study suggested that advanced AML patients could be directly treated with allo-HSCT and its survival could be improved through the strategy of early tapering of immunosuppressive agents without significant adverse effects (Clinicaltrials.​org NCT03150134).

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