To quantify the impact of activated charcoal (AC) on rivaroxaban exposure in healthy volunteers.
This was an open-label study with an incomplete cross-over design of single-dose rivaroxaban (40 mg) administered alone or with AC in 12 healthy volunteers. The study comprised three treatment periods in randomised sequence, one with rivaroxaban administered alone and two with AC given at 2, 5 or 8 h post-dose. Rivaroxaban plasma concentration was measured in blood samples drawn at 16 time points. The pharmacokinetic model of rivaroxaban alone or with AC administration was built using a non-linear mixed-effect modelling approach.
The pharmacokinetic model was based on a one-compartment model with an absorption rate described by the sum of three inverse Gaussian densities to reproduce multiphasic and prolonged absorption. The inclusion in the model of each AC administration schedule significantly improved objective function value. AC reduced the area under the rivaroxaban concentration-time curve by 43% when administered 2 h post-dose, by 31% when administered 5 h post-dose and by 29% when administered 8 h post-dose. Based on the estimated pharmacokinetic model, simulations suggested that AC might have an impact even after 8 h post-dose.
AC administration significantly reduces exposure to rivaroxaban even if AC is administered 8 h after rivaroxaban. These results suggest that AC could be used in rivaroxaban overdose and accidental ingestion to antagonise absorption.
ClinicalTrial.gov registration no.