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08.08.2018 | Original Article | Ausgabe 12/2018

Pediatric Nephrology 12/2018

Effect of atorvastatin on dyslipidemia and carotid intima-media thickness in children with refractory nephrotic syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

Zeitschrift:
Pediatric Nephrology > Ausgabe 12/2018
Autoren:
Pankaj Hari, Priyanka Khandelwal, Amit Satpathy, Smriti Hari, Ranjeet Thergaonkar, R Lakshmy, Aditi Sinha, Arvind Bagga

Abstract

Background

Dyslipidemia is an important cardiovascular risk factor in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). Efficacy of statins for treatment of hyperlipidemia in children with SRNS is unclear.

Methods

This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial enrolled 30 patients with SRNS, aged 5–18 years, with serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between 130 and 300 mg/dl, to receive a fixed dose of atorvastatin (n = 15, 10 mg/d) or placebo (n = 15) by block randomization in a 1:1 ratio. Primary outcome was change in serum LDL-C at 12 months. Change in levels of other lipid fractions, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, and adverse events were also evaluated.

Results

At the end of 12 months, atorvastatin was not superior to placebo in reducing plasma LDL-C levels, median percentage reduction 15.8% and 9.5% respectively, in atorvastatin and placebo arms (n = 14 in each; P = 0.40). Apolipoprotein B levels significantly declined with atorvastatin in modified intention-to-treat analysis (P = 0.01) but not in the per-protocol analysis. There was no significant effect on other lipid fractions, cIMT and FMD. Adverse events were similar between groups. Change in serum albumin was negatively associated with change in serum LDL-C, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and apolipoprotein B (P < 0.001), irrespective of receiving atorvastatin, age, gender, body mass index, and serum creatinine.

Conclusions

Atorvastatin, administered at a fixed daily dose of 10 mg, was not beneficial in lowering lipid levels in children with SRNS; rise in serum albumin was associated with improvement in dyslipidemia.

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