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12.01.2016 | Original Contribution | Ausgabe 3/2017

European Journal of Nutrition 3/2017

Effect of meal composition on postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1, insulin, glucagon, C-peptide, and glucose responses in overweight/obese subjects

Zeitschrift:
European Journal of Nutrition > Ausgabe 3/2017
Autoren:
Meena Shah, Brian Franklin, Beverley Adams-Huet, Joel Mitchell, Brooke Bouza, Lyn Dart, Melody Phillips

Abstract

Background

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone, is released in response to food intake. It is unclear how meals high in protein (HP) and monounsaturated fat (HMF) affect GLP-1 response.

Purpose

To examine the effect of a HP versus a HMF meal on GLP-1 response.

Methods

Twenty-four overweight/obese participants consumed two meals (HP: 31.9 % energy from protein; HMF: 35.2 % fat and 20.7 % monounsaturated fat) in a random order. Both meals contained the same energy and carbohydrate content. GLP-1, insulin, glucagon, C-peptide, and glucose were assessed from blood drawn in the fasting and postprandial states. The effect of meal condition on hormone and glucose responses and appetite ratings were assessed by repeated measures analysis.

Results

Statistically significant (p < 0.01) time by meal condition effect was observed on active GLP-1, total GLP-1, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon, but not glucose (p = 0.83). Area under the curve was significantly higher during the HP versus the HMF meal conditions for active GLP-1 (23.7 %; p = 0.0007), total GLP-1 (12.2 %; p < 0.0001), insulin (54.4 %; p < 0.0001), C-peptide (14.8 %; p < 0.0001), and glucagon (40.7 %; p < 0.0001). Blood glucose was not different between the HP versus HMF conditions (−4.8 %; p = 0.11). Insulin sensitivity was higher during the HMF versus HP conditions (Matsuda index mean difference: 16.3 %; p = 0.007). Appetite ratings were not different by meal condition.

Conclusions

GLP-1 and insulin responses were higher during the HP condition. However, no difference was found in blood glucose between conditions, and insulin sensitivity was higher during the HMF condition, indicating that a HMF meal may be optimal at regulating blood glucose in overweight/obese individuals without type 2 diabetes.

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