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24.03.2020 | Urogenital | Ausgabe 8/2020

European Radiology 8/2020

Effect of observation size and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value in PI-RADS v2.1 assessment category 4 and 5 observations compared to adverse pathological outcomes

Zeitschrift:
European Radiology > Ausgabe 8/2020
Autoren:
Jorge Abreu-Gomez, Daniel Walker, Tareq Alotaibi, Matthew D. F. McInnes, Trevor A. Flood, Nicola Schieda
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00330-020-06725-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Abstract

Objective

To compare observation size and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) v2.1 category 4 and 5 observations to adverse pathological features.

Materials and methods

With institutional review board approval, 267 consecutive men with 3-T MRI before radical prostatectomy (RP) between 2012 and 2018 were evaluated by two blinded radiologists who assigned PI-RADS v2.1 scores. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. A third blinded radiologist measured observation size and ADC (ADC.mean, ADC.min [lowest ADC within an observation], ADC.ratio [ADC.mean/ADC.peripheral zone {PZ}]). Size and ADC were compared to pathological stage and Gleason score (GS) using t tests, ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.

Results

Consensus review identified 267 true positive category 4 and 5 observations representing 83.1% (222/267) PZ and 16.9% (45/267) transition zone (TZ) tumors. Inter-observer agreement for PI-RADS v2.1 scoring was moderate (K = 0.45). Size was associated with extra-prostatic extension (EPE) (19 ± 8 versus 14 ± 6 mm, p < 0.001) and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) (24 ± 9 versus 16 ± 7 mm, p < 0.001). Size ≥ 15 mm optimized the accuracy for EPE with area under the ROC curve (AUC) and sensitivity/specificity of 0.68 (CI 0.62–0.75) and 63.2%/65.6%. Size ≥ 19 mm optimized the accuracy for SVI with AUC/sensitivity/specificity of 0.75 (CI 0.66–0.83)/69.4%/70.6%. ADC metrics were not associated with pathological stage. Larger observation size (p = 0.032), lower ADC.min (p = 0.010), and lower ADC.ratio (p = 0.010) were associated with higher GS. Size correlated better to higher Gleason scores (p = 0.002) compared to ADC metrics (p = 0.09–0.11).

Conclusion

Among PI-RADS v2.1 category 4 and 5 observations, size was associated with higher pathological stage whereas ADC metrics were not. Size, ADC.minimum, and ADC.ratio differed in tumors stratified by Gleason score.

Key Points

• Among PI-RADS category 4 and 5 observations, size but not ADC can differentiate between tumors by pathological stage.
• An observation size threshold of 15 mm and 19 mm optimized the accuracy for diagnosis of extra-prostatic extension and seminal vesicle invasion.
• Among PI-RADS category 4 and 5 observations, size, ADC.minimum, and ADC.ratio differed comparing tumors by Gleason score.

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