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Effects of a Multi-site Expansion of Group Prenatal Care on Birth Outcomes

Maternal and Child Health Journal
Amy H. Crockett, Emily C. Heberlein, Jessica C. Smith, Pelin Ozluk, Sarah Covington-Kolb, Carla Willis
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The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10995-019-02795-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Objectives Perinatal Quality Collaboratives across the United States are initiating projects to improve health and healthcare for women and infants. We compared an evidence-based group prenatal care model to usual individual prenatal care on birth outcomes in a multi-site expansion of group prenatal care supported by a state-wide multidisciplinary Perinatal Quality Collaborative. Methods We analyzed 15,330 pregnant women aged 14–48 across 13 healthcare practices in South Carolina (2013–2017) using a preferential-within cluster matching propensity score method and logistic regression. Outcomes were extracted from birth certificate data. We compared outcomes for (a) women at the intent-to-treat level and (b) for women participating in at least five group prenatal care visits to women with less than five group visits with at least five prenatal visits total. Results In the intent-to-treat analyses, women who received group prenatal care were significantly less likely to have preterm births (absolute risk difference − 3.2%, 95% CI − 5.3 to − 1.0%), low birth weight births (absolute risk difference − 3.7%, 95% CI − 5.5 to − 1.8%) and NICU admissions (absolute risk difference − 4.0%, 95% CI − 5.6 to − 2.3%). In the as-treated analyses, women had greater improvements compared to intent-to-treat analyses in preterm birth and low birth weight outcomes. Conclusions for Practice CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care is effective across a range of real-world clinical practices for decreasing the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight. This is a feasible approach for other Perinatal Quality Collaboratives to attempt in their ongoing efforts at improving maternal and infant health outcomes.

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