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29.11.2018 | Systematic Review

Effects of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Cycling Time Trial Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Zeitschrift:
Sports Medicine
Autoren:
Cayque Brietzke, Paulo Estevão Franco-Alvarenga, Hélio José Coelho-Júnior, Rodrigo Silveira, Ricardo Yukio Asano, Flávio Oliveira Pires
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s40279-018-1029-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

Background

Despite the growing number of studies reporting carbohydrate mouth rinse effects on endurance performance, no systematic and meta-analysis review has been conducted to elucidate the level of evidence of carbohydrate mouth rinse effects on cycling trial performance such as time-, work-, and distance-based trials.

Objectives

The objective of this study were to establish the effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on cycling performance outcomes such as mean power output and time to complete a trial, together with the risk of bias in the cycling-carbohydrate mouth rinse literature.

Methods

We systematically reviewed randomized placebo-controlled trials that assessed carbohydrate mouth rinse effects on mean power output and time to complete the trial. A random-effects meta-analysis assessed the standardized mean difference between carbohydrate and placebo mouth rinses.

Results

Thirteen studies (16 trials) were qualitatively (systematic review) and quantitatively (meta-analysis) analyzed with regard to mean power output (n = 175) and time to complete the trial (n = 151). Overall, the reviewed studies showed a low risk of bias and homogeneous results for mean power output (I2 = 0%) and time to complete the trial (I2 = 0%). When compared with placebo, the carbohydrate mouth rinse improved mean power output (standardized mean difference = 0.25; 95% confidence interval 0.04–0.46; p = 0.02), but not the time to complete the trial (standardized mean difference = − 0.13; 95% confidence interval − 0.36 to 0.10; p = 0.25).

Conclusion

The present systematic and meta-analytic review supports the notion that a carbohydrate mouth rinse has the potential to increase mean power output in cycling trials, despite showing no superiority over placebo in improving time to complete the trials.

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Zusatzmaterial
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 11 kb)
40279_2018_1029_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 95 kb)
40279_2018_1029_MOESM2_ESM.pdf
Funnel plots: (A) mean power output and (B) time to complete the trial. SE standard error, SMD standardized mean difference (TIFF 109 kb)
40279_2018_1029_MOESM3_ESM.tif
Supplementary material 4 (XLSX 12 kb)
40279_2018_1029_MOESM4_ESM.xlsx
Forest plot comparing the mean power output between carbohydrate and placebo mouth rinses excluding high risk of bias studies; ‘a’ and ‘b’ denote different experiments within the same study. CI confidence interval, IV inverse variance, SD standard deviation, Std standardized (TIFF 17589 kb)
40279_2018_1029_MOESM5_ESM.tiff
Forest plot comparing time to complete the cycling trial (minutes) between carbohydrate and placebo mouth rinses excluding high risk of bias studies; ‘a’ and ‘b’ denote different experiments within the same study. CI confidence interval, IV inverse variance, SD standard deviation, Std standardized (TIFF 17589 kb)
40279_2018_1029_MOESM6_ESM.tiff
Literatur
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