Skip to main content
main-content

15.07.2016 | Article | Ausgabe 10/2016

Diabetologia 10/2016

Effects of exercise training alone vs a combined exercise and nutritional lifestyle intervention on glucose homeostasis in prediabetic individuals: a randomised controlled trial

Zeitschrift:
Diabetologia > Ausgabe 10/2016
Autoren:
Cris A. Slentz, Lori A. Bateman, Leslie H. Willis, Esther O. Granville, Lucy W. Piner, Gregory P. Samsa, Tracy L. Setji, Michael J. Muehlbauer, Kim M. Huffman, Connie W. Bales, William E. Kraus

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis

Although the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) established lifestyle changes (diet, exercise and weight loss) as the ‘gold standard’ preventive therapy for diabetes, the relative contribution of exercise alone to the overall utility of the combined diet and exercise effect of DPP is unknown; furthermore, the optimal intensity of exercise for preventing progression to diabetes remains very controversial. To establish clinical efficacy, we undertook a study (2009 to 2013) to determine: how much of the effect on measures of glucose homeostasis of a 6 month programme modelled after the first 6 months of the DPP is due to exercise alone; whether moderate- or vigorous-intensity exercise is better for improving glucose homeostasis; and to what extent amount of exercise is a contributor to improving glucose control. The primary outcome was improvement in fasting plasma glucose, with improvement in plasma glucose AUC response to an OGTT as the major secondary outcome.

Methods

The trial was a parallel clinical trial. Sedentary, non-smokers who were 45–75 year old adults (n = 237) with elevated fasting glucose (5.28–6.94 mmol/l) but without cardiovascular disease, uncontrolled hypertension, or diabetes, from the Durham area, were studied at Duke University. They were randomised into one of four 6 month interventions: (1) low amount (42 kJ kg body weight−1 week−1 [KKW])/moderate intensity: equivalent of expending 42 KKW (e.g. walking ∼16 km [8.6 miles] per week) with moderate-intensity (50% \( \overset{.}{V}{\mathrm{O}}_{2\mathrm{reserve}} \)) exercise; (2) high amount (67 KKW)/moderate intensity: equivalent of expending 67 KKW (∼22.3 km [13.8 miles] per week) with moderate-intensity exercise; (3) high amount (67 KKW)/vigorous intensity: equivalent to group 2, but with vigorous-intensity exercise (75% \( \overset{.}{V}{\mathrm{O}}_{2\mathrm{reserve}} \)); and (4) diet + 42 KKW moderate intensity: same as group 1 but with diet and weight loss (7%) to mimic the first 6 months of the DPP. Computer-generated randomisation lists were provided by our statistician (G. P. Samsa). The randomisation list was maintained by L. H. Willis and C. A. Slentz with no knowledge of or input into the scheduling, whereas all scheduling was done by L. A. Bateman, with no knowledge of the randomisation list. Subjects were automatically assigned to the next group listed on the randomisation sheet (with no ability to manipulate the list order) on the day that they came in for the OGTT, by L. H. Willis. All plasma analysis was done blinded by the individuals doing the measurements (i.e. lipids, glucose, insulin). Subjects and research staff (other than individuals analysing the blood) were not blinded to the group assignments.

Results

Number randomised, completers and number analysed with complete OGTT data for each group were: low-amount/moderate-intensity (61, 43, 35); high-amount/moderate-intensity (61, 44, 40); high-amount/vigorous-intensity (61, 43, 38); diet/exercise (54, 45, 37), respectively. Only the diet and exercise group experienced a decrease in fasting glucose (p < 0.001). The means and 95% CIs for changes in fasting glucose (mmol/l) for each group were: high-amount/moderate-intensity −0.07 (−0.20, 0.06); high-amount/vigorous 0.06 (−0.07, 0.19); low-amount/moderate 0.05 (−0.05, 0.15); and diet/exercise −0.32 (−0.46, −0.18). The effects sizes for each group (in the same order) were: 0.17, 0.15, 0.18 and 0.71, respecively. For glucose tolerance (glucose AUC of OGTT), similar improvements were observed for the diet and exercise (8.2% improvement, effect size 0.73) and the 67 KKW moderate-intensity exercise (6.4% improvement, effect size 0.60) groups; moderate-intensity exercise was significantly more effective than the same amount of vigorous-intensity exercise (p < 0.0207). The equivalent amount of vigorous-intensity exercise alone did not significantly improve glucose tolerance (1.2% improvement, effect size 0.21). Changes in insulin AUC, fasting plasma glucose and insulin did not differ among the exercise groups and were numerically inferior to the diet and exercise group.

Conclusions/interpretation

In the present clinical efficacy trial we found that a high amount of moderate-intensity exercise alone was very effective at improving oral glucose tolerance despite a relatively modest 2 kg change in body fat mass. These data, combined with numerous published observations of the strong independent relation between postprandial glucose concentrations and prediction of future diabetes, suggest that walking ∼18.2 km (22.3 km prescribed with 81.6% adherence in the 67 KKW moderate-intensity group) per week may be nearly as effective as a more intensive multicomponent approach involving diet, exercise and weight loss for preventing the progression to diabetes in prediabetic individuals. These findings have important implications for the choice of clinical intervention to prevent progression to type 2 diabetes for those at high risk.

Trial registration:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00962962

Funding:

The study was funded by National Institutes for Health National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH-NDDK) (R01DK081559)

Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten

★ PREMIUM-INHALT
e.Med Interdisziplinär

Mit e.Med Interdisziplinär erhalten Sie Zugang zu allen CME-Fortbildungen und Fachzeitschriften auf SpringerMedizin.de. Zusätzlich können Sie eine Zeitschrift Ihrer Wahl in gedruckter Form beziehen – ohne Aufpreis.

Bis zum 22.10. bestellen und 100 € sparen!

Weitere Produktempfehlungen anzeigen
Literatur
Über diesen Artikel

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 10/2016

Diabetologia 10/2016 Zur Ausgabe
  1. Das kostenlose Testabonnement läuft nach 14 Tagen automatisch und formlos aus. Dieses Abonnement kann nur einmal getestet werden.

  2. Das kostenlose Testabonnement läuft nach 14 Tagen automatisch und formlos aus. Dieses Abonnement kann nur einmal getestet werden.

Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin

 

 

 
 

Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin

2017 | Buch

Rheumatologie aus der Praxis

Entzündliche Gelenkerkrankungen – mit Fallbeispielen

Dieses Fachbuch macht mit den wichtigsten chronisch entzündlichen Gelenk- und Wirbelsäulenerkrankungen vertraut. Anhand von über 40 instruktiven Fallbeispielen werden anschaulich diagnostisches Vorgehen, therapeutisches Ansprechen und der Verlauf …

Herausgeber:
Rudolf Puchner

2016 | Buch

Ambulant erworbene Pneumonie

Was, wann, warum – Dieses Buch bietet differenzierte Diagnostik und Therapie der ambulant erworbenen Pneumonie zur sofortigen sicheren Anwendung. Entsprechend der neuesten Studien und Leitlinien aller wichtigen Fachgesellschaften.

Herausgeber:
Santiago Ewig

Mail Icon II Newsletter

Bestellen Sie unseren kostenlosen Newsletter Update Innere Medizin und bleiben Sie gut informiert – ganz bequem per eMail.

© Springer Medizin 

Bildnachweise