The present study investigates the effects of Vitellaria paradoxa crude extract administration on Salmonella typhimurium infected Wistar rats.
Rats were infected by single dose oral administration of Salmonella typhimurium (1.5×108 CFU). Negative control groups were infected and treated orally with distilled water (vehicle), neutral control group were not infected, while the four test groups were treated up to 18 days with 55 mg/kg, 110 mg/kg, 220 mg/kg and 440 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of V. paradoxa respectively. The effects of this extract administration on serum markers (total protein, creatinine, transaminases, bilirubin and lipid profile) as well as acute toxicity test and phytochemical screening were also investigated.
Following in vivo studies, aqueous extract of V. paradoxa allowed to clear salmonellosis in previously infected rats within twelve days of treatment. Infection has resulted in a significant increase of transaminases activity. Besides, significant decrease was observed in liver and kidney relative weight and their protein content. Nevertheless, administration of this plant extract at higher doses has resulted in the correction of some of these injuries. Results obtained from acute toxicity study showed that mice administered with the aqueous leaf extract exhibited a mild reaction to noise and pinch; excreted watery discharges and the LD50 value was 12.0 g/kg. In addition, the extract showed no toxic effect after 14 days. However, it may have a sedative effect or depressant effect on the central nervous system, may induce a decrease in plasma levels of algogenic substances, and may cause diarrhea at high doses. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, phenols and polyphenols, saponins, anthocyanins, steroids and anthraquinones.
These results support the ethnomedicinal use of V. paradoxa, and suggest that its leave can be used in the management antibacterial phytomedicine.