The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12879-017-2193-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Community-genotype methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CG-MRSA) clones are a global concern due to their resistance and increased virulence and their ability to cause infections both hospitalized patients and healthy people in the community. Here, we characterize 32 isolates of a new CG-MRSA clone. These isolates were identified in four cities in Colombia, South America.
The isolates were recovered from four different epidemiological and prospective studies that were conducted in several regions of Colombia. Molecular characterizations included multilocus sequence typing; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; SCCmec, agr and spa typing; and whole-genome sequencing.
All isolates belonged to ST923 (clonal complex 8), harbouring SCCmec IVa and a spa type t1635 and lacking an arginine catabolism mobile element. The isolates were classified as COL923, were resistant to at least one non-beta-lactam antibiotic, and exhibited high frequencies (>60%) of resistance to macrolides and tetracycline. Using whole-genome sequencing, we found that this new clone harbours novel prophage 3 and beta-island structures and a slightly different pathogenicity island 5. Moreover, isolates belonging to the COL923 clone are grouped in a different clade than USA300 and USA300-LV.
Our results show the emergence and spread of the COL923 clone in different cities in Colombia. This clone is resistant to several antibiotics and possesses new structures in its mobile genetic elements.
Additional file 2: Figure S1 Schematic diagram used to detect the main Mobile Genetic Elements (EMG) in the MRSA isolates. The genome sequence reported to USA300-FPR3757 (GenBank accession number CP000255.1), COL (GenBank accession number CP000046.1), Mu50 (GenBank accession number BA000017.4) and N315 (GenBank accession number BA000018.3) were used as reference. Black arrows represent the ORFs localized upstream and downstream of the EGM and GI. Black triangles represent the PCR primers localization. Abbreviations: SaPI: Staphylococcus aureus Pathogenicity Island, ϕSA: S. aureus Prophage, νSaα: S. aureus genomic island Alfa, νSaβ: S. aureus genomic island beta and νSa4: S. aureus genomic island 4. (TIF 608 kb)12879_2017_2193_MOESM2_ESM.tif
Additional file 3: Table S2 Assembly statistics to 10 MRSA isolates sequenced using the MiSeq platform (except 5sau003 and 5sau489, sequenced using HiSeq 2000). L50 and L75 are the number of contigs greater than N50 and N70 respectively. (DOCX 15 kb)12879_2017_2193_MOESM3_ESM.docx
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- Emergence and spread of a new community-genotype methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone in Colombia
Ricaurte Alejandro Marquez-Ortiz
Zayda Lorena Corredor
Betsy Esperanza Castro
Maria Victoria Moncada
- BioMed Central
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