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01.12.2019 | Review | Ausgabe 1/2019 Open Access

Journal of Hematology & Oncology 1/2019

Emerging therapeutic agents for genitourinary cancers

Zeitschrift:
Journal of Hematology & Oncology > Ausgabe 1/2019
Autoren:
Kevin Zarrabi, Azzam Paroya, Shenhong Wu
Wichtige Hinweise

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Abstract

The treatment of genitourinary malignancies has dramatically evolved over recent years. Renal cell carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, and prostate adenocarcinoma are the most commonly encountered genitourinary malignancies and represent a heterogeneous population of cancers, in both histology and approach to treatment. However, all three cancers have undergone paradigm shifts in their respective therapeutic landscapes due to a greater understanding of their underlying molecular mechanisms and oncogenic drivers. The advance that has gained the most recent traction has been the advent of immunotherapies, particularly immune checkpoint inhibitors. Immunotherapy has increased overall survival and even provided durable responses in the metastatic setting in some patients. The early success of immune checkpoint inhibitors has led to further drug development with the emergence of novel agents which modulate the immune system within the tumor microenvironment. Notwithstanding immunotherapy, investigators are also developing novel agents tailored to a variety of targets including small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors, and novel fusion proteins to name a few. Erdafitinib has become the first targeted therapy approved for metastatic bladder cancer. Moreover, the combination therapy of immune checkpoint inhibitors with targeted agents such as pembrolizumab or avelumab with axitinib has demonstrated both safety and efficacy and just received FDA approval for their use. We are in an era of rapid progression in drug development with multiple exciting trials and ongoing pre-clinical studies. We highlight many of the promising new emerging therapies that will likely continue to improve outcomes in patients with genitourinary malignancies.

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