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Erschienen in: International Journal of Colorectal Disease 7/2022

Open Access 02.07.2022 | Clinical Study Protocol

Emilia-Romagna Surgical Colorectal Cancer Audit (ESCA): a value-based healthcare retro-prospective study to measure and improve the quality of surgical care in colorectal cancer

verfasst von: Ilaria Massa, Federico Ghignone, Giampaolo Ugolini, Giorgio Ercolani, Isacco Montroni, Patrizio Capelli, Gianluca Garulli, Fausto Catena, Andrea Lucchi, Luca Ansaloni, Nicola Gentili, Valentina Danesi, Maria Teresa Montella, Mattia Altini, The ESCA Collaborative Group

Erschienen in: International Journal of Colorectal Disease | Ausgabe 7/2022

Abstract

Purpose

Surgery is the main treatment for non-metastatic colorectal cancer. Despite huge improvements in perioperative care, colorectal surgery is still associated with a significant burden of postoperative complications and ultimately costs for healthcare organizations. Systematic clinical auditing activity has already proven to be effective in measuring and improving clinical outcomes, and for this reason, we decided to evaluate its impact in a large area of northern Italy.

Methods

The Emilia-Romagna Surgical Colorectal Audit (ESCA) is an observational, multicentric, retro-prospective study, carried out by 7 hospitals located in the Emilia-Romagna region. All consecutive patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer during a 54-month study period will be enrolled. Data regarding baseline conditions, preoperative diagnostic work-up, surgery and postoperative course will be collected in a dedicated case report form. Primary outcomes regard postoperative complications and mortality. Secondary outcomes include each center’s adherence to the auditing (enrolment rate) and evaluation of the systematic feedback activity on key performance indicators for the entire perioperative process.

Conclusion

This protocol describes the methodology of the Emilia-Romagna Surgical Colorectal Audit. The study will provide real-world clinical data essential for benchmarking and feedback activity, to positively impact outcomes and ultimately to improve the entire healthcare process of patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery.

Clinical trial registration

The study ESCA is registered on the clinicaltrials.gov platform (Identifier: NCT03982641).
Hinweise

Supplementary Information

The online version contains supplementary material available at https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00384-022-04203-w.

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Introduction

“If you can not measure it, you can not improve it” (Lord Kelvin)
A clinical audit is a process which assesses whether healthcare is meeting standards, with the capacity to reduce care disparities as well as being a method to cut unnecessary costs. Where indicated, changes are implemented at an individual, team, or service level, and further monitoring is used to confirm improvement in healthcare delivery [1]. Reliable data, meticulous measurement, and systematic feedback to participants about their performances are the three pillars at the base of an effective clinical audit. Only good data can bring understanding of what does and does not improve the quality of healthcare, and a continuous assessment process allows for concrete advancement (Fig. 1).
The so-called “Hawthorne effect” (the awareness of being monitored positively influences the behavior of monitored individuals) also helps improve the process, as already widely demonstrated [26].
Medical literature offers a vast number of international clinical audits focused on colorectal cancer surgery [710]. The Dutch Colorectal Audit (DCRA) probably represents one of the most effective initiatives aiming at improving surgical quality outcomes [7]. DCRA started in 2009 and after just 8 years of activity more than 70,000 patients were included, showing a dramatic decrease in postoperative mortality from 3.4 to 1.8% for colon cancer and from 2.3 to 1% for rectal cancer [10]. Moreover, a significant reduction in costs for the entire healthcare system was observed along with a reduction in complications [11] and an optimization of resources such as the reduction in preoperative radiation therapy for rectal cancer without any impact on oncological outcomes[12].
In 2020, more than 43,000 people in Italy were diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC). Of these, approximately 800 of them lived in proximity of the centers taking part in this study [13]. Looking at the administrative data of the Emilia-Romagna region, huge variability was also observed in terms of volume and surgical outcomes, ranging respectively from 36 to 290 procedures per hospital and 2.26% up to 9.45% for 30-day mortality [14].
Following the path of the DCRA experience and given the heterogeneity of surgical outcomes among the hospitals in our region, we decided for the first time in Italy to promote a systematic clinical auditing pilot study focused on CRC surgical care and its possible benefit on outcomes.

Methods

Data governance and ethics

The protocol has been described according to the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendation for the Investigational Trials (SPIRIT) checklist [15] (Appendix). The ethical committee approved the project for each of the centers taking part according to local regulations, and it has been registered on the clinicaltrials.gov platform (Identifier: NCT03982641). The Romagna Ethical Committee (CEROM) approval number is 2278.

Study organization, administration, and governance

The Emilia-Romagna Surgical Colorectal Audit (ESCA) is a multicenter, retro-prospective, observational non-profit study promoted by the IRCCS Istituto Romagnolo per lo Studio dei Tumori (IRST) “Dino Amadori” in Meldola and the Local Health Agency of Romagna (AUSL Romagna).
Members of the surgical units participating in the study contributed to its design gave feedback and reviewed the study protocol. ESCA is overseen by a study steering committee composed of surgeons, epidemiologists, statisticians, IT specialists, and healthcare administrators.
ESCA received a financial support from Johnson & Johnson Medical S.p.a Ethicon Division for data management and monitoring.
The objectives of the study are as follows:
1.
To systematically collect data of all patients undergoing surgical treatment for primary CRC from diagnosis up to 6 months after surgery;
 
2.
To evaluate risk adjusted post-operative complications and mortality;
 
3.
To evaluate adherence to the clinical audit activity of each participating center;
 
4.
To evaluate the possible positive effects on outcomes, both clinical and economic, of systematic measurement and monitoring (Hawthorne effect).
 

Setting and study population

Patients will be enrolled from the 7 hospitals located in the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy (Table 1), during a 54-month study period. The recruitment target is around 800 patients per year on the basis of demographic data reported in previous years.
Table 1
Participating centers
Participating centers
Hospital “Degli Infermi” — Faenza
Hospital “S.Maria delle Croci” — Ravenna
Hospital “Morgagni-Pierantoni” — Forlì
Hospital “Infermi” — Rimini
Hospital “Bufalini” — Cesena
Hospital “Ceccarini” — Riccione
Hospital “Giovanni da Saliceto” — Piacenza

Inclusion criteria

All consecutive patients undergoing surgery for primary CRC between 15 April 2019 and 31 December 2023 will be enrolled in the study. All types of surgical procedures are included, irrespective of setting (urgent/emergent or elective), intent (curative or palliative), and approach (open or minimally invasive). Eligible patients are asked to sign an informed consent form. Cognitive impairment is not considered an exclusion criterion if informed consent is obtained by an appropriate healthcare proxy.

Exclusion criteria

Patients with multiple synchronous primary tumors are excluded from the analysis. Patients who are unwilling to sign an informed consent form are also excluded.

Patient’s withdrawal

Participating subjects have the right to withdraw at any time for any reason; data will be collected until the patient’s withdrawal point.

Study outcomes

The primary objective of this analysis is to assess the frequency of post-operative complications, unplanned re-interventions, re-admissions, and mortality rates (at 30, 90, and 180 days after surgery).
Secondary outcomes include adherence to the clinical audit by each center (intended as the percentage of enrolled eligible patients) along with the study timeframe and possible positive effects on outcomes, both clinical and economic, of systematic measurement and monitoring.

Key performance indicators, case-mix, benchmarking, and feed-back activity

A core set of key performance indicators (KPIs) will be assessed to measure performance and evaluate the quality of colorectal cancer surgery across the participating centers (Table 2). Each KPI will be estimated both as unadjusted and risk adjusted for differences in patients’ characteristics for a fair comparison among the participating hospitals.
Table 2
Overview of the selected key performance indicators
ID
Indicator title
Indicator description
Indicator type
1
Multidisciplinary discussion
Rate of patients discussed at a multidisciplinary meeting (MDM) before surgery
Colon and rectal cancer
2
Neoadjuvant treatment
Rate of patients receiving neoadjuvant treatment (radiation therapy, chemo-radiation, chemotherapy, total neoadjuvant treatment)
Rectal cancer
3
Minimally invasive resections
Rate of patients undergoing minimally invasive resection
Colon and rectal cancer
4
Conversion
Conversion rate from minimally invasive to open surgery at any time during the procedure
Colon and rectal cancer
5
Anastomotic leak
Rate of anastomotic leakage
Colon and rectal cancer
6
Anastomosis
Rate of patients undergoing anastomosis after low anterior resection
Rectal cancer
7
Loop ileostomy
Rate of loop ileostomy creation after low anterior resection
Rectal cancer
8
Length of stay (LOS)
Rate of patients discharged within postoperative days 3 and 5
Colon and rectal cancer
9
Postoperative complications
Rate of patients with severe postoperative complications (grade ≥ 3 according to Clavien–Dindo classification)
Colon and rectal cancer
10
Quality of total mesorectal excision (TME)
Rate of patients with TME grade 1 or 2
Rectal cancer
11
Positive circumferential resection margins (CRM)
Rate of reported positive CRMs (less than or equal to 1 mm)
Rectal cancer
12
Lymph-nodes yield
Rate of patients for who received adequate lymphadenectomy (≥ 12 lymph-nodes)
Colon and rectal cancer
13
Unplanned reintervention
Rate of patients with an unplanned return to theatre within 30 days after index surgery
Colon and rectal cancer
14
Unplanned readmission
Rate of patients with unplanned readmission within 30 days after discharge/transfer from surgical unit
Colon and rectal cancer
15
Postoperative mortality
Rate of patients who died 30,90, or 180 days after surgery
Colon and rectal cancer
Every 12 months, an anonymized report on volume and KPIs will be delivered to each hospital comparing data of all the participating centers. A set of relevant case-mix variables (patients’ frailty, tumor burden, type of surgery) will be also identified in order to produce a reliable comparison of outcomes between hospitals and give each center case-mix adjusted outcomes.
Data collected during the first 18 months (from April 2019 to October 2020) will be analyzed in order to evaluate preliminary results on primary and secondary outcomes. The first preliminary analysis will be used as benchmark to further implement the auditing activity.
Case-mix adjusted data will be presented using funnel plots with a 95% confidence interval (Fig. 2).
Reports of the enrolment rate, obtained by comparing the number of enrolled patients to the hospital discharge cards (HDC), will be sent to each center every 3 months. The aim of this feedback activity is to progressively obtain a 100% enrolment of eligible patients and thus provide “real-world data” that avoid bias related to patient selection.

Data collection and quality control

The data collection and management for this paper are performed using the OpenClinica open-source software for Electronic Data Capture (EDC), version 3.1 (Copyright OpenClinica LLC and collaborators, Waltham, MA, USA, www.​OpenClinica.​com). Case report forms are filled in for each patient by trained healthcare providers (attendings, residents) or properly trained data managers. Operative and postoperative data are retrieved both from electronic medical charts and administrative databases. Surgical data analysis, including detection of postoperative complications, will be done under the supervision of a staff surgeon.
Quality control and data authenticity will be performed by data managers and clinical research coordinators. Clinical data will be compared to routinely collect administrative information retrieved from regional registries to ensure reliability and completeness and to avoid selection bias. Registration of each patient is automatically linked to the regional administration database, which by law receives notification on all patients deceased in Emilia-Romagna.

Study variables

The full data set is composed of up to 172 possible variables, and it is organized in sections as follows.

Preoperative assessment

Preoperative functional assessment is conducted using the Eastern Collaborative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) [16] and the American Society of Anaesthesiology (ASA) score [17, 18]. Patients aged ≥ 70 years are screened for frailty with the Katz Activities of Daily Living (ADL) [19] and the Flemish version of the Triage Risk Screening Tool (fTRST) [20, 21]. Comorbidities are assessed using the age adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) [22, 23] and the presence of malnourishment is evaluated using the nutritional risk score (NRS) [24]. All screening tests are reported in detail in Table 3. Baseline evaluation further includes information on the living conditions before surgery and polypharmacy.
Table 3
Preoperative functional status assessment tools
Test
Range
American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) score
1–5
Eastern Collaborative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG-PS)
0–5
Katz Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
0–6
Flemish version of the Triage Risk Screening Tool (fTRST)
0–6
Nutritional risk screening (NRS)
0–3
Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI)
0–38
The diagnostic work-up is then assessed including the following items:
1.
Number and location of primary cancer;
 
2.
Presence/absence of distant metastases;
 
3.
Date of preoperative endoscopy and pathology report of biopsy;
 
4.
Presence of cancer-related preoperative complications (anemia, colonic obstruction, perforation);
 
5.
Date and type of preoperative imaging studies (CT scan, MRI, PET-CT) as appropriate.
 
For rectal cancer patients undergoing pelvic MRI and/or neoadjuvant treatments, specific items will be also collected as reported in Table 4.
Table 4
Pelvic MRI features for rectal cancer and type of neoadjuvant treatment
PREOPERATIVE PELVIC MRI
 POSSIBLE ANSWERS
Mucinous features
yes/no
Distance from anal verge
value [mm]
Distance from pubo-rectal sling
value [mm]
Cranio-caudal extension
value [mm]
Presence of extra-mural vascular invasion (EMVI)
yes/no
Invasive margin site assessed?
yes/no
Invasive margin site location
Anterior
Posterior
Right lateral
Left lateral
Circumferential
Mesorectal extra-mural invasion and depth
yes/no [mm]
Lymph node status
N0/N+ 
Minimal distance from mesorectal fascia
value [mm]
Location of minimal distance from mesorectal fascia
Anterior
Posterior
Right lateral
Left lateral
mrTNM
[User should report the tumour node metastasis staging]
TYPE OF NEOADJUVANT TREATMENT
 
Short course radiation therapy (5×5)
yes/no
Standard long course chemo-radiotherapy
yes/no
Total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT)
yes/no
Chemotherapy alone
yes/no
RESTAGING PELVIC MRI
 
Mucinous features
yes/no
Distance from anal verge
value [mm]
Distance from puborectal sling
value [mm]
Cranio-caudal extension
value [mm]
Presence of EMVI
yes/no
Invasive margin site assessed?
yes/no
Invasive margin site location
Anterior
Posterior
Right lateral
Left lateral
Circumferential
Mesorectal extra-mural invasion and depth
yes/no [mm]
Location of minimal distance from mesorectal fascia
Anterior
Posterior
Right lateral
Left lateral
Lymph node status
N0/N+/na
Minimal distance from mesorectal fascia
value [mm]
Location of minimal distance from mesorectal fascia
Anterior
Posterior
Right lateral
Left lateral
ymrTNM
[User should report the tumour-node-metastasis staging after neoadjuvant treatment]

Surgery

Type of surgical procedure, regimen, length of surgery, and operative technique is collected. Possible intraoperative complications are identified and specified as well as the need for intraoperative blood transfusions. The radicality of surgery is assessed as well as type of anastomosis including characteristics and technique. If stoma is created, details are reported as appropriate. All surgical items are reported in detail in Table 5.
Table 5
Surgical variables
SURGERY
POSSIBLE ANSWERS
Colonic stent preoperatively placed?
yes/no
Surgical regimen
Elective
Urgent
Unknown
Surgical intent
Curative
Palliative
Unknown
Surgical technique
Laparotomy
Laparoscopy
Robotic
TEM
Transanal open
TAMIS
taTME
Unknown
Conversion
yes/no
Time to conversion
Early (< 60 minutes)
Late (> 60 minutes)
Reason of conversion
Reactive
Strategic
Surgical procedure
Ileo-cecal resection
Right colectomy
Extended right colectomy
Transverse colon resection
Splenic flexure resection
Left colectomy
Low anterior resection with PME
Sigmoid resection
Subtotal colectomy
Abdomino-perineal excision
Total proctocolectomy
Transanal local excision
Explorative procedure
Type of abdomino-perineal resection:
Standard APR (APE)
Extralevator APR (ELAPE)
Pelvic exenteration
Beyond TME (APR with sacrectomy)
Type of pelvic exenteration:
(specify organ included into the resection)
Cystectomy
Prostatectomy
Istero-annessectomy
Intra-operative complications
yes/no
Type of Intra-operative complication
Splenic injury
Biliary injury
Small bowel injury
Vaginal injury
Urological injury
Peritoneal perforation during transanal procedure
Additional resections
Ileal resection
Minor hepatic resection
Major hepatic resection
Other abdominal/pelvic organs
Peritonectomy (including HIPEC)
Lung resection
Other (specify)
Intra-operative blood transfusion?
yes/no
Length of surgery
value [minutes]
Radicality
R0/R1/R2
Anastomosis
yes/no
Type of anastomosis—1
Hand-sewn
Stapled
Type of anastomosis—2
Ileo-colonic
Colo-colonic
Colo-rectal
Ileo-rectal
Colo-anal
Ileo-anal
Type of anastomosis—3
Intra-corporeal
Extra-corporeal
Not applicable
Stoma?
yes/no
Type of stoma
End ileostomy
End colostomy
Loop ileostomy
Loop colostomy

Postoperative course

Need of the post-operative intensive care unit (ICU), length of ICU stay, postoperative LOS, and discharge settings are all registered. Thirty-day postoperative morbidity is collected and classified according to Clavien–Dindo classification [25, 26]. Cumulative burden of postoperative complications is calculated for each patient according to the comprehensive complication index [27]. If re-intervention is needed, the reason for reintervention, operative procedure, approach, and need for postoperative ICU stay are all collected (Table 6).
Table 6
Postoperative course
POSTOPERATIVE COURSE
POSSIBLE ANSWERS
ICU stay
yes/no
Length of ICU stay
value [days]
Postoperative length of stay
value [days]
Discharge/transfer setting
Other ward
Rehabilitation
Home
Nursing home
Complications according to Clavien–Dindo
yes/no
(if yes user should report type of complication and grade)
Anastomotic leak?
yes/no
Bleeding requiring transfusion?
yes/no
ICU transfer because of postoperative complications?
yes/no
Re-intervention within 30 days?
yes/no
Re-intervention reason
[specify]
Re-intervention: procedure
[specify]
Pre-reintervention setting
Surgical ward
Other ward
ICU
Home
Post-reintervention ICU stay
yes/no

Pathology

The pathology report includes cancer type and grade of differentiation according to the WHO classification [28], the number of retrieved and positive lymph-nodes, and lympho-vascular and perineural invasion. For patients with rectal cancer, additional information includes extra mural vascular invasion (EMVI), evaluation of distal and circumferential margins, TME quality according to the Quirke classification [29, 30], and grade of regression following neoadjuvant treatment according to Ryan/CAP [31]. Final tumor stage is reported according to the 7th edition of the TNM cancer staging system [32] (Table 7).
Table 7
Pathology and postoperative oncological treatment
PATHOLOGY
POSSIBLE ANSWERS
Histological type
[User should report histologic type of tumour]
Number of lymph-nodes retrieved
value
Number of metastatic lymph-nodes
value
Grade of differentiation
Low/high
Lymphatic invasion
yes/no
Vascular invasion
yes/no
Perineural invasion
yes/no
pTNM
[User should report pathologic tumour-node-metastasis staging]
Pathology — rectal cancer
EMVI
 
Free distal margin
yes/no
Free radial margin
yes/no
TME quality according to Quirke
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 1
Not assessed
Grade of regression after neoadjuvant therapy
Grade 0
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Not assessed
pTNM
[User should report pathologic tumour-node-metastasis staging]
Postoperative chemotherapy
yes/no
Postoperative radiotherapy
yes/no

Follow-up

After hospital discharge, any postoperative oncological treatment will be reported (adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy). Possible changes in living conditions, considered as a proxy for functional recovery, will be reported. Any emergency department access until postoperative day 30 and the reason for it will be collected as well as the need for re-hospitalization. Mortality at 30, 90, and 180 days postoperatively will be collected, together with the cause of death (Table 8).
Table 8
Follow up
30 DAYS - FOLLOW UP
POSSIBLE ANSWERS
Emergency room access because of surgical complications
yes/no
Re-admission from first surgery
yes/no
Reason for readmission
surgical complication
complication not related to surgery
other
In-hospital death
yes/no
Cause of death
Disease progression
Complications
other medical issues
unknown
Patient status at 30 days
alive/death
90 DAYS – FOLLOW UP
 
Patient status at 30 days
alive/death
180 DAYS – FOLLOW UP
 
Patient status at 30 days
alive/death

Statistical considerations

All the analyses will be performed considering tumor location (colon or rectum) as a stratification factor. For continuous variables, the arithmetic mean and standard deviation (SD), as well as the median value and minimum–maximum, will be presented. Absolute frequencies together with the percentage relative frequencies will be reported while summarizing qualitative variables.
To evaluate the performance of surgical activity, absolute numbers and relative percentages of each performance indicator reported will be calculated. The mortality rate will be defined as the number of patients who died within 30, 90, and 180 days after surgery. Graphical representation will also be used: funnel plots will be displayed for each KPI, both in unadjusted and adjusted versions.
Appropriate statistical models (i.e., mixed models, logistical regression, multilevel models) will be developed to evaluate the relationship among analyzed indicators and potential explanatory factors as well as for standardization/adjustment purposes. Main covariates will include age, gender, ASA score, CCI, surgery setting (urgent vs. elective), and ECOG.
Hospitals will be used as random effects to account for the presence of possible variability among hospitals. Other exploratory subgroup analyses will be performed.
Furthermore, to assess the effects of continuous monitoring and benchmarking on clinical outcomes, a before-and-after approach will be used. Specifically, assuming the time from the first subject surgery until the release of the first benchmarking report as the reference period (baseline, i.e., “before” period), the analysis will evaluate any significant changes occurred afterwards. Any changes on the outcomes will be, therefore, attributed to the benchmarking effect.
Missing values will be replaced and estimated using multiple imputations. A two-sided 95% confidence interval (95% CI) will be reported as appropriate.
Statistical analysis will be performed using R statistical software (v. 4.0.6) — www.​r-project.​org.

Discussion

Surgery is the main treatment modality for stages I–III colorectal cancer and frequently represents the most effective choice even in a palliative setting. Despite massive improvements in perioperative care and techniques, colorectal cancer surgery is still associated with a significant burden of postoperative complications which result in greater healthcare costs and severe functional sequalae for patients. If the value of healthcare is maximizing quality care at minimal cost [33], the large-scale participation in an audit, which constantly measure the care quality and the resources used associated for a benchmark feedback, represents a unique opportunity to significantly improve healthcare and limit expenditure.
Administrative data have already revealed their limitations when used to evaluate quality of care and can lead to misinterpretation when used to measure composite postoperative outcomes of complex and/or frail patients [34, 35]. However, together with mortality registries, they are essential for quality check control (enrollment rate) and completeness of data entry for specific items (re-admission rate, emergency department admission after discharge): for this reason, they were integrated into the entire ESCA auditing process.
Clinical data are more difficult and expensive to collect than administrative data, but these challenges are far outweighed by the opportunity clinical data can create in obtaining reliable information on the entire clinical process, ultimately improving quality and reducing hospital costs, as has been demonstrated by previously validated large national clinical audits such as NSQuIP [36] and DCRA [10]. The Dutch experience, thanks to the inclusion of the entire colorectal surgery population, represents to date, the most meaningful one given its “real-world” nature without selection bias and with risk-adjusted outcome data.
ESCA is an initiative which follows one of the main recommendations of the European Cancer Care Organization (ECCO) — Essential Requirements for Quality Cancer Care (ERQCC). The ERQCC recommended that clinical and process outcome data should be systematically measured and collected to give high quality care to patients [37].
With the paramount of a concrete enhancement of postoperative outcomes and a reduction of costs, ESCA aims to investigate, for the first time in Italy, the impact of systematic clinical auditing and feedback in the field of colorectal cancer surgery among a large population representative of a real-world population. Key performance indicators based on evidence-based guidelines, web-based registration of clinical data made by physicians integrated with administrative data and continuous feedback on the enrolment, and risk-adjusted outcomes are the critical elements of the study, which will provide strong and reliable data to measure and improve quality of colorectal cancer surgical care.
Future challenges will be to enhance this project at regional or national level and will use our experience to set regional and national quality standards.

Acknowledgements

We would like to express our special thanks of gratitude to Dr. Jan Willem Dekker and Professor Rob Tollenaar for inspiring and supporting our team with their experience of the Dutch ColoRectal Audit and Dutch Institute for Clinical Auditing.

Declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Ethical approval

The protocol study was approved by the Scientific and Medical Committee of IRST and the Ethics Committee (EC) of each center. The Romagna Ethical Committee (CEROM) approval number is 2278.
Informed consent will be obtained from all subjects involved in the study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://​creativecommons.​org/​licenses/​by/​4.​0/​.

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Supplementary Information

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Metadaten
Titel
Emilia-Romagna Surgical Colorectal Cancer Audit (ESCA): a value-based healthcare retro-prospective study to measure and improve the quality of surgical care in colorectal cancer
verfasst von
Ilaria Massa
Federico Ghignone
Giampaolo Ugolini
Giorgio Ercolani
Isacco Montroni
Patrizio Capelli
Gianluca Garulli
Fausto Catena
Andrea Lucchi
Luca Ansaloni
Nicola Gentili
Valentina Danesi
Maria Teresa Montella
Mattia Altini
The ESCA Collaborative Group
Publikationsdatum
02.07.2022
Verlag
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Erschienen in
International Journal of Colorectal Disease / Ausgabe 7/2022
Print ISSN: 0179-1958
Elektronische ISSN: 1432-1262
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00384-022-04203-w

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 7/2022

International Journal of Colorectal Disease 7/2022 Zur Ausgabe

TAVI bei kleinem Aortenklappenanulus: Es gibt noch ungeklärte Fragen

13.06.2024 TAVI Nachrichten

Zwischen selbstexpandierenden und ballonexpandierbaren TAVI-Klappen scheinen bezüglich der Klappenfunktion bei Aortenstenose und kleinem Aortenklappenanulus Unterschiede zu bestehen. Aber sind die überhaupt von klinischer Relevanz? Eine neue Studie liefert dazu Informationen.

Fortgeschrittenes Ovarial-Ca.: Unverdächtige Lymphknoten entfernen?

13.06.2024 ASCO 2024 Kongressbericht

Beim fortgeschrittenen Ovarialkarzinom und klinisch verdächtigen Lymphknoten in der Debulking-Op. ist die abdominale retroperitoneale Lymphadenektomie (RPL) Standard. Ohne verdächtige Lymphknoten ist der Nutzen fraglich.

Auch ohne Blutung: Hämoglobinabfall nach TAVI ein Warnzeichen

10.06.2024 TAVI Nachrichten

Kommt es nach einem Transkatheter-Aortenklappen-Ersatz zu einem deutlichen Rückgang der Hämoglobinwerte, obwohl keine Blutung vorliegt, ist die Kliniksterblichkeit ähnlich hoch wie bei einem Rückgang mit Blutung. 

Nierenspende stellt kein Risiko für Hypertonie dar

07.06.2024 Nierentransplantation Nachrichten

Wer im Zuge einer Lebendspende eine seiner Nieren an eine Person im Nierenversagen weitergibt, muss nicht fürchten, sich damit ein erhöhtes Hypertonierisiko einzuhandeln. Auch Albuminurie tritt nicht häufiger auf, wie eine Studie zeigt.

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S3-Leitlinie „Diagnostik und Therapie des Karpaltunnelsyndroms“

Karpaltunnelsyndrom BDC Leitlinien Webinare
CME: 2 Punkte

Das Karpaltunnelsyndrom ist die häufigste Kompressionsneuropathie peripherer Nerven. Obwohl die Anamnese mit dem nächtlichen Einschlafen der Hand (Brachialgia parästhetica nocturna) sehr typisch ist, ist eine klinisch-neurologische Untersuchung und Elektroneurografie in manchen Fällen auch eine Neurosonografie erforderlich. Im Anfangsstadium sind konservative Maßnahmen (Handgelenksschiene, Ergotherapie) empfehlenswert. Bei nicht Ansprechen der konservativen Therapie oder Auftreten von neurologischen Ausfällen ist eine Dekompression des N. medianus am Karpaltunnel indiziert.

Prof. Dr. med. Gregor Antoniadis
Berufsverband der Deutschen Chirurgie e.V.

S2e-Leitlinie „Distale Radiusfraktur“

Radiusfraktur BDC Leitlinien Webinare
CME: 2 Punkte

Das Webinar beschäftigt sich mit Fragen und Antworten zu Diagnostik und Klassifikation sowie Möglichkeiten des Ausschlusses von Zusatzverletzungen. Die Referenten erläutern, welche Frakturen konservativ behandelt werden können und wie. Das Webinar beantwortet die Frage nach aktuellen operativen Therapiekonzepten: Welcher Zugang, welches Osteosynthesematerial? Auf was muss bei der Nachbehandlung der distalen Radiusfraktur geachtet werden?

PD Dr. med. Oliver Pieske
Dr. med. Benjamin Meyknecht
Berufsverband der Deutschen Chirurgie e.V.

S1-Leitlinie „Empfehlungen zur Therapie der akuten Appendizitis bei Erwachsenen“

Appendizitis BDC Leitlinien Webinare
CME: 2 Punkte

Inhalte des Webinars zur S1-Leitlinie „Empfehlungen zur Therapie der akuten Appendizitis bei Erwachsenen“ sind die Darstellung des Projektes und des Erstellungswegs zur S1-Leitlinie, die Erläuterung der klinischen Relevanz der Klassifikation EAES 2015, die wissenschaftliche Begründung der wichtigsten Empfehlungen und die Darstellung stadiengerechter Therapieoptionen.

Dr. med. Mihailo Andric
Berufsverband der Deutschen Chirurgie e.V.