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30.04.2018 | Short Communication | Ausgabe 7/2018

Diabetologia 7/2018

Empagliflozin in women with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease – an analysis of EMPA-REG OUTCOME®

Zeitschrift:
Diabetologia > Ausgabe 7/2018
Autoren:
Bernard Zinman, Silvio E. Inzucchi, Christoph Wanner, Uwe Hehnke, Jyothis T. George, Odd Erik Johansen, David Fitchett, on behalf of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® investigators
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00125-018-4630-2) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
Odd Erik Johansen and David Fitchett are joint senior authors.

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis

The global epidemic of type 2 diabetes affects women and men equally; however, the relative impact on the cardiovascular (CV) system appears greater for women than men when compared with peers without diabetes. Furthermore, women are often under-represented in CV outcome trials, resulting in less certainty about the impact of CV prevention therapies across the sexes. The EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial, which included 28.5% women, found that empagliflozin, given in addition to standard of care, reduced the risk of CV death by 38%, heart failure (HF) hospitalisation by 35% and a composite endpoint for incident or worsening nephropathy by 39%. Here we report a secondary analysis of the trial to determine the relative effects of empagliflozin in women vs men.

Methods

The population studied were individuals with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c 53–86 mmol/mol [7–10%] and eGFR >30 ml min−1 [1.73 m]−2), with established atherosclerotic CV disease. Individuals were randomised to receive empagliflozin 10 mg or 25 mg, or placebo once daily in addition to standard of care, and followed. The trial continued until ≥691 individuals had experienced an adjudicated event included in the primary outcome. All CV outcome events, including HF hospitalisations and deaths were prospectively adjudicated by blinded clinical events committees.

Results

At baseline, the demographic profile of the 2004 women (age ± standard deviation 63.6 ± 8.8 years) compared with the 5016 men (age 63.0 ± 8.6 years) in the trial was largely similar, with the exception that LDL-cholesterol was numerically higher in women (2.5 ± 1.0 vs 2.1 ± 0.9 mmol/l), consistent with lower rates of lipid-lowering therapies (75.4% vs 83.2%). Women were also less likely to have smoked (31.5% vs 69.9%). The annualised incidence rate for women in the placebo group was numerically lower than in men for CV death (1.58% vs 2.19%), numerically higher for HF hospitalisation (1.75% vs 1.33%) and similar for renal events (7.22% vs 7.75%). We did not detect any effect modification by sex within the statistical power restrictions of the analysis for CV death, HF hospitalisation and incident or worsening nephropathy (interaction p values 0.32, 0.20 and 0.85, respectively). Compared with placebo, empagliflozin increased the rates of genital infections in both women (2.5% vs 10.0%) and men (1.5% vs 2.6%).

Conclusions/interpretation

CV death, HF hospitalisation and incident or worsening nephropathy rate reductions induced by empagliflozin were not different between women and men.

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Zusatzmaterial
ESM Tables (PDF 151 kb)
125_2018_4630_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Literatur
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