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The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
HS determined unit prices and calculated costs, performed the statistical analyses, calculated the elasticity and drafted the manuscript. CM conceived the KORINNA study and participated in its design and coordination. RW collected the data and coordinated the KORINNA study. RH conceived the KORINNA study, participated in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Data collection for economic evaluation alongside clinical trials is burdensome and cost-intensive. Limiting both the frequency of data collection and recall periods can solve the problem. As a consequence, gaps in survey periods arise and must be filled appropriately. The aims of our study are to assess the validity of incomplete cost data collection and define suitable resource categories.
In the randomised KORINNA study, cost data from 234 elderly patients were collected quarterly over a 1-year period. Different strategies for incomplete data collection were compared with complete data collection. The sample size calculation was modified in response to elasticity of variance.
Resource categories suitable for incomplete data collection were physiotherapy, ambulatory clinic in hospital, medication, consultations, outpatient nursing service and paid household help.
Cost estimation from complete and incomplete data collection showed no difference when omitting information from one quarter. When omitting information from two quarters, costs were underestimated by 3.9% to 4.6%.
With respect to the observed increased standard deviation, a larger sample size would be required, increased by 3%. Nevertheless, more time was saved than extra time would be required for additional patients.
Cost data can be collected efficiently by reducing the frequency of data collection. This can be achieved by incomplete data collection for shortened periods or complete data collection by extending recall windows. In our analysis, cost estimates per year for ambulatory healthcare and non-healthcare services in terms of three data collections was as valid and accurate as a four complete data collections. In contrast, data on hospitalisation, rehabilitation stays and care insurance benefits should be collected for the entire target period, using extended recall windows. When applying the method of incomplete data collection, sample size calculation has to be modified because of the increased standard deviation. This approach is suitable to enable economic evaluation with lower costs to both study participants and investigators.
The trial registration number is ISRCTN02893746