Skip to main content

01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Oral Health 1/2015

Enhancement of salivary human neutrophil peptide 1–3 levels by probiotic supplementation

BMC Oral Health > Ausgabe 1/2015
Onnida Wattanarat, Anupong Makeudom, Thanapat Sastraruji, Supatcharin Piwat, Sukanya Tianviwat, Rawee Teanpaisan, Suttichai Krisanaprakornkit
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​s12903-015-0003-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

OW: Measurement of salivary HNP1-3 levels, data analyses and interpretation, and manuscript preparation. AM: Measurement of salivary HNP1-3 levels and manuscript preparation. TS: Statistical analyses and manuscript preparation. SP: Oral examination and ICDAS scores, saliva collection. ST: Oral examination and ICDAS scores, saliva collection. RS: Preparation of probiotics in the milk powder, microbiological assays, study design. SK: Data analyses and interpretation, manuscript preparation, and corresponding author. All authors have read and approved this manuscript in its final version.



Probiotic supplementation can reduce mutans streptococci (MS) numbers. One of its proposed mechanisms is immunomodulation. Salivary human neutrophil peptide 1–3 (HNP1-3) levels have previously been demonstrated to be higher in caries-free than in caries-susceptible children, suggesting their preventive role against caries. We aimed to compare salivary HNP1-3 levels between an intervention group with probiotics and a control group.


A randomized double-blinded clinical trial was conducted. Sixty schoolchildren were equally allocated to either an intervention or control group. The use of a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei SD1, has shown to reduce MS numbers in volunteers. In unstimulated whole saliva, HNP1-3 levels were assayed by ELISA, and MS and lactobacilli counts were assayed by colony counting at baseline (T0) and at 3 (T3), 6 (T6), and 12 months (T12). The International Caries Detection and Assessment system was used to assess caries status.


In the intervention group, salivary HNP1-3 levels were significantly greater than those in the control group at T3 and T6 (p < 0.001), whereas MS counts were significantly decreased (p < 0.01). In the intervention group, positive and negative correlations were found between HNP1-3 levels and lactobacilli counts and between MS and lactobacilli counts, respectively. However, there was no significant correlation between enhanced HNP1-3 levels and decreased MS numbers. The caries increment for the pit and fissure surface, but not for the smooth surfaces, was significantly decreased in the intervention group compared with the control group (p = 0.01).


Probiotics can temporarily enhance salivary HNP1-3 levels; however, their action to reduce new pit and fissure caries probably involves microbial interactions.

Trial registration

TCTR20130904001 (registration date: September 04, 2013).
Additional file 1: Data of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB) counts and human neutrophil peptide (HNP) 1-3 levels at T0, T3, T6 and T12.
Über diesen Artikel

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 1/2015

BMC Oral Health 1/2015 Zur Ausgabe

Neu im Fachgebiet Zahnmedizin

Mail Icon II Newsletter

Bestellen Sie unseren kostenlosen Newsletter Update Zahnmedizin und bleiben Sie gut informiert – ganz bequem per eMail.