The authors declare no competing interests.
Sun-Ouck Kim, Seong Woong Na, Ho Song Yu, and Dongdeuk Kwon
Department of Urology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.
SOK help conceive and design the study and drafted the manuscript. SWN collected the data and performed the statistical analyses. HSY assisted with conception and design of the study. DDK conceived and supervised the study and helped draft the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript.
Epididymal anomalies and patent processus vaginalis are frequently found in boys with cryptorchidism or hydrocele. We conducted this study to evaluate the association between epididymal anomalies and testicular location or patent processus vaginalis in boys with undescended testis or hydrocele.
Children undergoing surgery with undescended testis (group A, 136 boys and 162 testes) or communicating hydrocele (group B, 93 boys and 96 testes) were included. Testicular locations and epididymal anomalies were investigated prospectively. An anomalous epididymis was defined as anomalies of epididymal fusion that consisted of loss of continuity between the testis, the epididymis, and the long looping epididymis. The epididymis was considered normal when a normal, firm attachment between the testis, the caput, and the cauda epididymis was present.
The mean ages of groups A and B were 24.6 ± 19.7 (range, 8–52 months) and 31.4 ± 20.6 months (range, 10–59 months). The incidence of epididymal anomalies was significantly higher in group A than that in group B (65.4 % vs. 13.5 %, P < 0.001). The incidence of epididymal anomalies in boys with undescended testis was significantly different according to testis location. Epididymal anomalies were observed in 100 %, 91.4 %, and 39.3 % of cases when the testis was located in the abdomen, inguinal canal, and distal to the external inguinal ring, respectively (P < 0.001).
We conclude that epididymal anomalies were more frequent in boys with undescended testis than in boys with hydrocele, and that these anomalies were more frequent when undescended testis was at a higher level. These results suggest that testicular location is associated with epididymal anomalies rather than patent processus vaginalis.
Marshall FF, Shermeta DW. Epididymal abnormalities associated with undescended testis. J Urol. 1979;121(3):341–3. PubMed
Mininberg DT, Schlossberg S. The role of the epididymis in testicular descent. J Urol. 1983;129(6):1207–8. PubMed
Heath AL, Man DW, Eckstein HB. Epididymal abnormalities associated with maldescent of the testis. J Ped Surg. 1984;19(1):47–9. CrossRef
Gill B, Kogan S, Starr S, Reda E, Levitt S. Significance of epididymal and ductal anomalies associated with testicular maldescent. J Urol. 1989;142(2 Pt 2):556–8. PubMed
Koff WJ, Scaletscky R. Malformations of the epididymis in undescended testis. J Urol. 1990;143(2):340–3. PubMed
Elder JS. Epididymal anomalies associated with hydrocele/hernia and cryptorchidism: implications regarding testicular descent. J Urol. 1992;148(2 Pt 2):624–6. PubMed
Elder JS, Isaacs JT, Walsh PC. Androgenic sensitivity of the gubernaculums testis: evidence for hormonal/mechanical interaction in testicular descent. J Urol. 1982;127(1):170–6. PubMed
Hutson JM, Beasley SW. Embryological controversies in testicular descent. Semin Urol. 1988;6(2):68–73. PubMed
Parker RM, Robison JR. Anatomy and diagnosis of torsion of the testicle. J Urol. 1971;106(2):243–7. PubMed
Scorer CG, Farrington GH. Congenital deformities of the testis and epididymis. London: Butterworths & Co; 1971. p. 136–46.
- Epididymal anomalies in boys with undescended testis or hydrocele: Significance of testicular location
Seong Woong Na
Ho Song Yu
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Urologie
Meistgelesene Bücher in der Urologie
Mail Icon II