23.10.2020 | Review Article
Epilepsy in inherited neurotransmitter disorders: Spotlights on pathophysiology and clinical management
Metabolic Brain Disease
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Inborn errors of neurotransmitter metabolism are ultrarare disorders affecting neurotransmitter biosynthesis, breakdown or transport or their essential cofactors. Neurotransmitter dysfunctions could also result from the impairment of neuronal receptors, intracellular signaling, vesicle release or other synaptic abnormalities. Epilepsy is the main clinical hallmark in some of these diseases (e.g. disorders of GABA metabolism, glycine encephalopathy) while it is infrequent in others (e.g. all the disorders of monoamine metabolism in exception for dihydropteridine reductase deficiency). This review analyzes the epileptogenic mechanisms, the epilepsy phenotypes and the principle for the clinical management of epilepsy in primary and secondary inherited disorders of neurotransmitter metabolism (disorders of GABA, serine and glycine metabolism, disorders of neurotransmitter receptors and secondary neurotransmitter diseases).